• Aleven, V. A., & Koedinger, K. R. (2002). An effective metacognitive strategy: learning by doing and explaining with a computer-based cognitive tutor. Cognitive Science, 26, 147–179.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Anderson, J. R. (1983). A spreading activation theory of memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 261–295.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Arnold, K. M., & McDermott, K. B. (2013). Test-potentiated learning: distinguishing between direct and indirect effects of tests. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 940–945.

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Aylwin, S. (1990). Imagery and affect: big questions, little answers. In P. J. Thompson, D. E. Marks, & J. T. E. Richardson (Eds.), Imagery: Current developments. New York: International Library of Psychology.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Baldassari, M. J., & Kelley, M. (2012). Make’em laugh? The mnemonic effect of humor in a speech. Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research, 17, 2–9.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Barker, P. G., & Manji, K. A. (1989). Pictorial dialogue methods. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 31, 323–347.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Bauernschmidt, A. (2017). GUEST POST: two examples are better than one. [Blog post]. The Learning Scientists Blog. Retrieved from http://www.learningscientists.org/blog/2017/5/30-1. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Beaven, T. (2016). @doctorwhy @FurtherEdagogy @doc_kristy Right, I thought the whole point of dual coding was to use TWO codes: pics + words of the SAME info? [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/TitaBeaven/status/807504041341308929. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Bellezza, F. S., Cheesman, F. L., & Reddy, B. G. (1977). Organization and semantic elaboration in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 3, 539–550.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Benney, D. (2016). (Trying to apply) spacing in a content heavy subject [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://mrbenney.wordpress.com/2016/10/16/trying-to-apply-spacing-in-science/. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Berry, D. C. (1983). Metacognitive experience and transfer of logical reasoning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 35A, 39–49.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Birnbaum, M. S., Kornell, N., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2013). Why interleaving enhances inductive learning: the roles of discrimination and retrieval. Memory & Cognition, 41, 392–402.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Bjork, R. A. (1999). Assessing our own competence: heuristics and illusions. In D. Gopher & A. Koriat (Eds.), Attention and peformance XVII. Cognitive regulation of performance: Interaction of theory and application (pp. 435–459). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Bjork, R. A. (1994). Memory and metamemory considerations in the training of human beings. In J. Metcalfe & A. Shimamura (Eds.), Metacognition: Knowing about knowing (pp. 185–205). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (1992). A new theory of disuse and an old theory of stimulus fluctuation. From learning processes to cognitive processes: Essays in honor of William K. Estes, 2, 35–67.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2011). Making things hard on yourself, but in a good way: creating desirable difficulties to enhance learning. Psychology and the real world: Essays illustrating fundamental contributions to society, 56–64.

  • Blunt, J. R., & Karpicke, J. D. (2014). Learning with retrieval-based concept mapping. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106, 849–858.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Boulton, K. (2016). What does cognitive overload look like in the humanities? [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://educationechochamberuncut.wordpress.com/2016/03/05/what-does-cognitive-overload-look-like-in-the-humanities-kris-boulton-2/. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Brown, P. C., Roediger, H. L., & McDaniel, M. A. (2014). Make it stick. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Book 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Butler, A. C. (2010). Repeated testing produces superior transfer of learning relative to repeated studying. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 36, 1118–1133.

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Caplan, J. B., & Madan, C. R. (2016). Word-imageability enhances association-memory by recruiting hippocampal activity. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 28, 1522–1538.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Cepeda, N. J., Pashler, H., Vul, E., Wixted, J. T., & Rohrer, D. (2006). Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: a review and quantitative synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 354–380.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Cepeda, N. J., Vul, E., Rohrer, D., Wixted, J. T., & Pashler, H. (2008). Spacing effects in learning a temporal ridgeline of optimal retention. Psychological Science, 19, 1095–1102.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Chi, M. T., De Leeuw, N., Chiu, M. H., & LaVancher, C. (1994). Eliciting self-explanations improves understanding. Cognitive Science, 18, 439–477.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Chi, M. T., Feltovich, P. J., & Glaser, R. (1981). Categorization and representation of physics problems by experts and novices. Cognitive Science, 5, 121–152.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • CIFE. (2012). No January A level and other changes. Retrieved from http://www.cife.org.uk/cife-general-news/no-january-a-level-and-other-changes/. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Clark, D. (2016). One book on learning that every teacher, lecturer & trainer should read (7 reasons) [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://donaldclarkplanb.blogspot.com/2016/03/one-book-on-learning-that-every-teacher.html. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Clark, J. M., & Paivio, A. (1991). Dual coding theory and education. Educational Psychology Review, 3, 149–210.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Class Teaching. (2013). Deep questioning [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://classteaching.wordpress.com/2013/07/12/deep-questioning/. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Clinton, V., Alibali, M. W., & Nathan, M. J. (2016). Learning about posterior probability: do diagrams and elaborative interrogation help? The Journal of Experimental Education, 84, 579–599.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E., & Ecclestone, K. (2004). Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: a systematic and critical review. London: Learning & Skills Research Centre.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Cohen, R. L. (1981). On the generality of some memory laws. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 22, 267–281.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Cooper, H. (1989). Synthesis of research on homework. Educational Leadership, 47, 85–91.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Corbett, A. T., Reed, S. K., Hoffmann, R., MacLaren, B., & Wagner, A. (2010). Interleaving worked examples and cognitive tutor support for algebraic modeling of problem situations. In Proceedings of the Thirty-Second Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2882–2887).


    Google Scholar
     

  • Cox, D. (2015). No stakes testing – not telling students their results [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://missdcoxblog.wordpress.com/2015/06/06/no-stakes-testing-not-telling-students-their-results/. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Cox, D. (2016a). Ditch revision. Teach it well [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://missdcoxblog.wordpress.com/2016/01/09/ditch-revision-teach-it-well/. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Cox, D. (2016b). ‘They need to remember this in three years time’: spacing & interleaving for the new GCSEs [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://missdcoxblog.wordpress.com/2016/03/25/they-need-to-remember-this-in-three-years-time-spacing-interleaving-for-the-new-gcses/. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Craik, F. I. (2002). Levels of processing: past, present… future? Memory, 10, 305–318.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Craik, F. I., & Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: a framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671–684.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Danan, M. (1992). Reversed subtitling and dual coding theory: new directions for foreign language instruction. Language Learning, 42, 497–527.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Dettmers, S., Trautwein, U., & Lüdtke, O. (2009). The relationship between homework time and achievement is not universal: evidence from multilevel analyses in 40 countries. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 20, 375–405.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Dirkx, K. J., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2014). The testing effect for learning principles and procedures from texts. The Journal of Educational Research, 107, 357–364.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Dunlosky, J. (2013). Strengthening the student toolbox: study strategies to boost learning. American Educator, 37(3), 12–21.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., Marsh, E. J., Nathan, M. J., & Willingham, D. T. (2013). Improving students’ learning with effective learning techniques: promising directions from cognitive and educational psychology. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 14, 4–58.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Ebbinghaus, H. (1913). Memory (HA Ruger & CE Bussenius, Trans.). New York: Columbia University, Teachers College. (Original work published 1885). Retrieved from http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Ebbinghaus/memory8.htm. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Eglington, L. G., & Kang, S. H. (2016). Retrieval practice benefits deductive inference. Educational Psychology Review, 1–14.

  • Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2015). Picture or text first? Explaining sequential effects when learning with pictures and text. Educational Psychology Review, 27, 153–180.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Engelkamp, J., & Cohen, R. L. (1991). Current issues in memory of action events. Psychological Research, 53, 175–182.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Engelkamp, J., & Zimmer, H. D. (1984). Motor programme information as a separable memory unit. Psychological Research, 46, 283–299.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Fawcett, D. (2013). Can I be that little better at……using cognitive science/psychology/neurology to plan learning? [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://reflectionsofmyteaching.blogspot.com/2013/09/can-i-be-that-little-better-atusing.html. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Fiechter, J. L., & Benjamin, A. S. (2017). Diminishing-cues retrieval practice: a memory-enhancing technique that works when regular testing doesn’t. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1–9.

  • Firth, J. (2016). Spacing in teaching practice [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.learningscientists.org/blog/2016/4/12-1. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Fordham, M. [mfordhamhistory]. (2016). Is there a meaningful distinction in psychology between ‘thinking’ & ‘critical thinking’? [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/mfordhamhistory/status/809525713623781377. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Fritz, C. O., Morris, P. E., Nolan, D., & Singleton, J. (2007). Expanding retrieval practice: an effective aid to preschool children’s learning. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60, 991–1004.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Gates, A. I. (1917). Recitation as a factory in memorizing. Archives of Psychology, 6.

  • Gick, M. L., & Holyoak, K. J. (1983). Schema induction and analogical transfer. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 1–38.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Gorman, A. M. (1961). Recognition memory for nouns as a function of abstractedness and frequency. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 23–39.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Hainselin, M., Picard, L., Manolli, P., Vankerkore-Candas, S., & Bourdin, B. (2017). Hey teacher, don’t leave them kids alone: action is better for memory than reading. Frontiers in Psychology, 8.

  • Harp, S. F., & Mayer, R. E. (1998). How seductive details do their damage. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 414–434.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Hartland, W., Biddle, C., & Fallacaro, M. (2008). Audiovisual facilitation of clinical knowledge: A paradigm for dispersed student education based on Paivio’s dual coding theory. AANA Journal, 76, 194–198.

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Hattie, J., & Yates, G. (2014). Visible learning and the science of how we learn. New York: Routledge.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Hausman, H., & Kornell, N. (2014). Mixing topics while studying does not enhance learning. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 3, 153–160.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Hinze, S. R., & Rapp, D. N. (2014). Retrieval (sometimes) enhances learning: performance pressure reduces the benefits of retrieval practice. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28, 597–606.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Hirshman, E. (2001). Elaboration in memory. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences (pp. 4369–4374). Oxford: Pergamon.

    Chapter 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Hobbiss, M. (2016). Make it meaningful! Elaboration [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://hobbolog.wordpress.com/2016/06/09/make-it-meaningful-elaboration/. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Jones, F. (2016). Homework – is it really that useless? [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.learningscientists.org/blog/2016/4/5-1. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Kaminski, J. A., & Sloutsky, V. M. (2013). Extraneous perceptual information interferes with children’s acquisition of mathematical knowledge. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(2), 351–363.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kaminski, J. A., Sloutsky, V. M., & Heckler, A. F. (2008). The advantage of abstract examples in learning math. Science, 320, 454–455.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kang, S. H. (2016). Spaced repetition promotes efficient and effective learning policy implications for instruction. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3, 12–19.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kang, S. H. K., McDermott, K. B., & Roediger, H. L. (2007). Test format and corrective feedback modify the effects of testing on long-term retention. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 19, 528–558.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Karpicke, J. D., & Aue, W. R. (2015). The testing effect is alive and well with complex materials. Educational Psychology Review, 27, 317–326.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Karpicke, J. D., Blunt, J. R., Smith, M. A., & Karpicke, S. S. (2014). Retrieval-based learning: The need for guided retrieval in elementary school children. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 3, 198–206.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Karpicke, J. D., Lehman, M., & Aue, W. R. (2014). Retrieval-based learning: an episodic context account. In B. H. Ross (Ed.), Psychology of Learning and Motivation (Vol. 61, pp. 237–284). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Karpicke, J. D., Blunt, J. R., & Smith, M. A. (2016). Retrieval-based learning: positive effects of retrieval practice in elementary school children. Frontiers in Psychology, 7.

  • Kavale, K. A., Hirshoren, A., & Forness, S. R. (1998). Meta-analytic validation of the Dunn and Dunn model of learning-style preferences: a critique of what was Dunn. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 13, 75–80.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Khanna, M. M. (2015). Ungraded pop quizzes: test-enhanced learning without all the anxiety. Teaching of Psychology, 42, 174–178.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kirby, J. (2014). One scientific insight for curriculum design [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://pragmaticreform.wordpress.com/2014/05/05/scientificcurriculumdesign/. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Kirschner, P. A. (2017). Stop propagating the learning styles myth. Computers & Education, 106, 166–171.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kirschner, P. A., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2013). Do learners really know best? Urban legends in education. Educational Psychologist, 48, 169–183.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Knoll, A. R., Otani, H., Skeel, R. L., & Van Horn, K. R. (2017). Learning style, judgments of learning, and learning of verbal and visual information. British Journal of Psychology, 108, 544-563.

  • Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2008). Learning concepts and categories is spacing the “enemy of induction”? Psychological Science, 19, 585–592.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kornell, N., & Finn, B. (2016). Self-regulated learning: an overview of theory and data. In J. Dunlosky & S. Tauber (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Metamemory (pp. 325–340). New York: Oxford University Press.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Kornell, N., Klein, P. J., & Rawson, K. A. (2015). Retrieval attempts enhance learning, but retrieval success (versus failure) does not matter. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41, 283–294.

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kraemer, D. J. M., Rosenberg, L. M., & Thompson-Schill, S. L. (2009). The neural correlates of visual and verbal cognitive styles. Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 3792–3798.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kraft, N. (2015). Spaced practice and repercussions for teaching. Retrieved from http://nathankraft.blogspot.com/2015/08/spaced-practice-and-repercussions-for.html. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Learning Scientists. (2016a). Weekly Digest #3: How teachers implement interleaving in their curriculum [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.learningscientists.org/blog/2016/3/28/weekly-digest-3. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Learning Scientists. (2016b). Weekly Digest #13: how teachers implement retrieval in their classrooms [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.learningscientists.org/blog/2016/6/5/weekly-digest-13. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Learning Scientists. (2016c). Weekly Digest #40: teachers’ implementation of principles from “Make It Stick” [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.learningscientists.org/blog/2016/12/18-1. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Learning Scientists. (2017). Weekly Digest #54: is there an app for that? Studying 2.0 [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.learningscientists.org/blog/2017/4/9/weekly-digest-54. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • LeFevre, J.-A., & Dixon, P. (1986). Do written instructions need examples? Cognition and Instruction, 3, 1–30.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Lew, K., Fukawa-Connelly, T., Mejí-Ramos, J. P., & Weber, K. (2016). Lectures in advanced mathematics: Why students might not understand what the mathematics professor is trying to convey. Journal of Research in Mathematics Education, 47, 162–198.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Lindsey, R. V., Shroyer, J. D., Pashler, H., & Mozer, M. C. (2014). Improving students’ long-term knowledge retention through personalized review. Psychological Science, 25, 639–647.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Lipko-Speed, A., Dunlosky, J., & Rawson, K. A. (2014). Does testing with feedback help grade-school children learn key concepts in science? Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 3, 171–176.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Lockhart, R. S., & Craik, F. I. (1990). Levels of processing: a retrospective commentary on a framework for memory research. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 44, 87–112.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Lovell, O. (2017). How do we know what to put on the quiz? [Blog Post]. Retrieved from http://www.ollielovell.com/olliesclassroom/know-put-quiz/. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Luehmann, A. L. (2008). Using blogging in support of teacher professional identity development: a case study. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 17, 287–337.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Madan, C. R., Glaholt, M. G., & Caplan, J. B. (2010). The influence of item properties on association-memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 63, 46–63.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Madan, C. R., & Singhal, A. (2012a). Motor imagery and higher-level cognition: four hurdles before research can sprint forward. Cognitive Processing, 13, 211–229.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Madan, C. R., & Singhal, A. (2012b). Encoding the world around us: motor-related processing influences verbal memory. Consciousness and Cognition, 21, 1563–1570.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Madan, C. R., & Singhal, A. (2012c). Using actions to enhance memory: effects of enactment, gestures, and exercise on human memory. Frontiers in Psychology, 3.

  • Madan, C. R., Chen, Y. Y., & Singhal, A. (2016). ERPs differentially reflect automatic and deliberate processing of the functional manipulability of objects. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10.

  • Mandler, G. (1979). Organization and repetition: organizational principles with special reference to rote learning. In L. G. Nilsson (Ed.), Perspectives on Memory Research (pp. 293–327). New York: Academic Press.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Marsh, E. J., Fazio, L. K., & Goswick, A. E. (2012). Memorial consequences of testing school-aged children. Memory, 20, 899–906.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Mayer, R. E., & Gallini, J. K. (1990). When is an illustration worth ten thousand words? Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 715–726.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Mayer, R. E., & Moreno, R. (2003). Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning. Educational Psychologist, 38, 43–52.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • McDaniel, M. A., & Donnelly, C. M. (1996). Learning with analogy and elaborative interrogation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 508–519.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • McDaniel, M. A., Thomas, R. C., Agarwal, P. K., McDermott, K. B., & Roediger, H. L. (2013). Quizzing in middle-school science: successful transfer performance on classroom exams. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27, 360–372.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • McDermott, K. B., Agarwal, P. K., D’Antonio, L., Roediger, H. L., & McDaniel, M. A. (2014). Both multiple-choice and short-answer quizzes enhance later exam performance in middle and high school classes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 20, 3–21.

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • McHugh, A. (2013). High-stakes tests: bad for students, teachers, and education in general [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://teacherbiz.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/high-stakes-tests-bad-for-students-teachers-and-education-in-general/. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • McNeill, N. M., Uttal, D. H., Jarvin, L., & Sternberg, R. J. (2009). Should you show me the money? Concrete objects both hurt and help performance on mathematics problems. Learning and Instruction, 19, 171–184.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Meider, W. (1990). “A picture is worth a thousand words”: from advertising slogan to American proverb. Southern Folklore, 47, 207–225.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Michaela Community School. (2014). Homework. Retrieved from http://mcsbrent.co.uk/homework-2/. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Montefinese, M., Ambrosini, E., Fairfield, B., & Mammarella, N. (2013). The “subjective” pupil old/new effect: is the truth plain to see? International Journal of Psychophysiology, 89, 48–56.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • O’Neil, H. F., Chung, G. K., Kerr, D., Vendlinski, T. P., Buschang, R. E., & Mayer, R. E. (2014). Adding self-explanation prompts to an educational computer game. Computers In Human Behavior, 30, 23–28.

  • Overoye, A. L., & Storm, B. C. (2015). Harnessing the power of uncertainty to enhance learning. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 1, 140–148.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Paivio, A. (1971). Imagery and verbal processes. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representations: a dual coding approach. New York: Oxford University Press.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Paivio, A. (2007). Mind and its evolution: a dual coding theoretical approach. Mahwah: Erlbaum.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Paivio, A. (2013). Dual coding theory, word abstractness, and emotion: a critical review of Kousta et al. (2011). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142, 282–287.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Paivio, A., & Csapo, K. (1969). Concrete image and verbal memory codes. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 80, 279–285.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Paivio, A., & Csapo, K. (1973). Picture superiority in free recall: imagery or dual coding? Cognitive Psychology, 5, 176–206.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Paivio, A., Walsh, M., & Bons, T. (1994). Concreteness effects on memory: when and why? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 1196–1204.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2008). Learning styles: concepts and evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9, 105–119.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Pashler, H., Bain, P. M., Bottge, B. A., Graesser, A., Koedinger, K., McDaniel, M., & Metcalfe, J. (2007). Organizing instruction and study to improve student learning. IES practice guide. NCER 2007–2004. National Center for Education Research.

  • Patel, R., Liu, R., & Koedinger, K. (2016). When to block versus interleave practice? Evidence against teaching fraction addition before fraction multiplication. In Proceedings of the 38th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Philadelphia, PA.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Penfound, B. (2017). Journey to interleaved practice #2 [Blog Post]. Retrieved from https://fullstackcalculus.com/2017/02/03/journey-to-interleaved-practice-2/. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Penfound, B. [BryanPenfound]. (2016). Does blocked practice/learning lessen cognitive load? Does interleaved practice/learning provide productive struggle? [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/BryanPenfound/status/808759362244087808. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Peterson, D. J., & Mulligan, N. W. (2010). Enactment and retrieval. Memory & Cognition, 38, 233–243.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Picciotto, H. (2009). Lagging homework [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://blog.mathedpage.org/2013/06/lagging-homework.html. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Pomerance, L., Greenberg, J., & Walsh, K. (2016). Learning about learning: what every teacher needs to know. Retrieved from http://www.nctq.org/dmsView/Learning_About_Learning_Report. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Postman, L. (1976). Methodology of human learning. In W. K. Estes (Ed.), Handbook of learning and cognitive processes (Vol. 3). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Pressley, M., McDaniel, M. A., Turnure, J. E., Wood, E., & Ahmad, M. (1987). Generation and precision of elaboration: effects on intentional and incidental learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 13, 291–300.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Reed, S. K. (2008). Concrete examples must jibe with experience. Science, 322, 1632–1633.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • researchED. (2013). How it all began. Retrieved from http://www.researched.org.uk/about/our-story/. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Ritchie, S. J., Della Sala, S., & McIntosh, R. D. (2013). Retrieval practice, with or without mind mapping, boosts fact learning in primary school children. PLoS One, 8(11), e78976.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Rittle-Johnson, B. (2006). Promoting transfer: effects of self-explanation and direct instruction. Child Development, 77, 1–15.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Roediger, H. L. (1985). Remembering Ebbinghaus. [Retrospective review of the book On Memory, by H. Ebbinghaus]. Contemporary Psychology, 30, 519–523.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Roediger, H. L. (2013). Applying cognitive psychology to education translational educational science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 14, 1–3.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Roediger, H. L., & Karpicke, J. D. (2006). The power of testing memory: basic research and implications for educational practice. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1, 181–210.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Roediger, H. L., Putnam, A. L., & Smith, M. A. (2011). Ten benefits of testing and their applications to educational practice. In J. Mester & B. Ross (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation: cognition in education (pp. 1–36). Oxford: Elsevier.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Roediger, H. L., Finn, B., & Weinstein, Y. (2012). Applications of cognitive science to education. In Della Sala, S., & Anderson, M. (Eds.), Neuroscience in education: the good, the bad, and the ugly. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

  • Roelle, J., & Berthold, K. (2017). Effects of incorporating retrieval into learning tasks: the complexity of the tasks matters. Learning and Instruction, 49, 142–156.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Rohrer, D. (2012). Interleaving helps students distinguish among similar concepts. Educational Psychology Review, 24(3), 355–367.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Rohrer, D., Dedrick, R. F., & Stershic, S. (2015). Interleaved practice improves mathematics learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107, 900–908.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Rohrer, D., & Pashler, H. (2012). Learning styles: Where’s the evidence? Medical Education, 46, 34–35.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Rohrer, D., & Taylor, K. (2007). The shuffling of mathematics problems improves learning. Instructional Science, 35, 481–498.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Rose, N. (2014). Improving the effectiveness of homework [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://evidenceintopractice.wordpress.com/2014/03/20/improving-the-effectiveness-of-homework/. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Sadoski, M. (2005). A dual coding view of vocabulary learning. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 21, 221–238.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Saunders, K. (2016). It really is time we stopped talking about learning styles [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://martingsaunders.com/2016/10/it-really-is-time-we-stopped-talking-about-learning-styles/. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Schwartz, D. (2007). If a picture is worth a thousand words, why are you reading this essay? Social Psychology Quarterly, 70, 319–321.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Shumaker, H. (2016). Homework is wrecking our kids: the research is clear, let’s ban elementary homework. Salon. Retrieved from http://www.salon.com/2016/03/05/homework_is_wrecking_our_kids_the_research_is_clear_lets_ban_elementary_homework. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Smith, A. M., Floerke, V. A., & Thomas, A. K. (2016). Retrieval practice protects memory against acute stress. Science, 354, 1046–1048.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Smith, M. A., Blunt, J. R., Whiffen, J. W., & Karpicke, J. D. (2016). Does providing prompts during retrieval practice improve learning? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30, 784–802.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Smith, M. A., & Karpicke, J. D. (2014). Retrieval practice with short-answer, multiple-choice, and hybrid formats. Memory, 22, 784–802.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Smith, M. A., Roediger, H. L., & Karpicke, J. D. (2013). Covert retrieval practice benefits retention as much as overt retrieval practice. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 1712–1725.

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Son, J. Y., & Rivas, M. J. (2016). Designing clicker questions to stimulate transfer. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology, 2, 193–207.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Szpunar, K. K., Khan, N. Y., & Schacter, D. L. (2013). Interpolated memory tests reduce mind wandering and improve learning of online lectures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 6313–6317.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Thomson, R., & Mehring, J. (2016). Better vocabulary study strategies for long-term learning. Kwansei Gakuin University Humanities Review, 20, 133–141.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Trafton, J. G., & Reiser, B. J. (1993). Studying examples and solving problems: contributions to skill acquisition. Technical report, Naval HCI Research Lab, Washington, DC, USA.

  • Tran, R., Rohrer, D., & Pashler, H. (2015). Retrieval practice: the lack of transfer to deductive inferences. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22, 135–140.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Turner, K. [doc_kristy]. (2016a). My dual coding (in red) and some y8 work @AceThatTest they really enjoyed practising the technique [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/doc_kristy/status/807220355395977216. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Turner, K. [doc_kristy]. (2016b). @FurtherEdagogy @doctorwhy their work is revision work, they already have the words on a different page, to compliment not replace [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/doc_kristy/status/807360265100599301. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Valle, A., Regueiro, B., Núñez, J. C., Rodríguez, S., Piñeiro, I., & Rosário, P. (2016). Academic goals, student homework engagement, and academic achievement in elementary school. Frontiers in Psychology, 7.

  • Van Gog, T., & Sweller, J. (2015). Not new, but nearly forgotten: the testing effect decreases or even disappears as the complexity of learning materials increases. Educational Psychology Review, 27, 247–264.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Wammes, J. D., Meade, M. E., & Fernandes, M. A. (2016). The drawing effect: evidence for reliable and robust memory benefits in free recall. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69, 1752–1776.

  • Weinstein, Y., Gilmore, A. W., Szpunar, K. K., & McDermott, K. B. (2014). The role of test expectancy in the build-up of proactive interference in long-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40, 1039–1048.

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Weinstein, Y., Nunes, L. D., & Karpicke, J. D. (2016). On the placement of practice questions during study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 22, 72–84.

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Weinstein, Y., & Weinstein-Jones, F. (2017). Topic and quiz spacing spreadsheet: a planning tool for teachers [Blog Post]. Retrieved from http://www.learningscientists.org/blog/2017/5/11-1. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Weinstein-Jones, F., & Weinstein, Y. (2017). Topic spacing spreadsheet for teachers [Excel macro]. Zenodo. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.573764. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Williams, D. [FurtherEdagogy]. (2016). @doctorwhy @doc_kristy word accompanying the visual? I’m unclear how removing words benefit? Would a flow chart better suit a scientific exp? [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/FurtherEdagogy/status/807356800509104128. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Wood, B. (2017). And now for something a little bit different….[Blog post]. Retrieved from https://justateacherstandinginfrontofaclass.wordpress.com/2017/04/20/and-now-for-something-a-little-bit-different/. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.

  • Wooldridge, C. L., Bugg, J. M., McDaniel, M. A., & Liu, Y. (2014). The testing effect with authentic educational materials: a cautionary note. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 3, 214–221.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Young, C. (2016). Mini-tests. Retrieved from https://colleenyoung.wordpress.com/revision-activities/mini-tests/. Accessed 25 Dec 2017.



  • Rights and permissions

    Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

    Disclaimer:

    This article is autogenerated using RSS feeds and has not been created or edited by OA JF.

    Click here for Source link (https://www.springeropen.com/)