Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 3910: An Overview on the Histogenesis and Morphogenesis of Salivary Gland Neoplasms and Evolving Diagnostic Approaches
Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers13153910
Uyen Minh Nha Cao
Crystal To Tam Mai
Bich Hong Nguyen
Simon D. Tran
Salivary gland neoplasms (SGN) remain a diagnostic dilemma due to their heterogenic complex behavior. Their diverse histomorphological appearance is attributed to the underlying cellular mechanisms and differentiation into various histopathological subtypes with overlapping features. Diagnostic tools such as fine needle aspiration biopsy, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography help evaluate the structure and assess the staging of SGN. Advances in molecular pathology have uncovered genetic patterns and oncogenes by immunohistochemistry, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and next–generation sequencing, that may potentially contribute to innovating diagnostic approaches in identifying various SGN. Surgical resection is the principal treatment for most SGN. Other modalities such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy (agents like tyrosine kinase inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and proteasome inhibitors), and potential hormone therapy may be applied, depending on the clinical behaviors, histopathologic grading, tumor stage and location, and the extent of tissue invasion. This review delves into the molecular pathways of salivary gland tumorigenesis, highlighting recent diagnostic protocols that may facilitate the identification and management of SGN.
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