Diagnostics, Vol. 11, Pages 1403: Effect of Loading Changes on the Intraventricular Pressure Measured by Color M-Mode Echocardiography in Rats
Diagnostics doi: 10.3390/diagnostics11081403
Ahmed S. Mandour
Hussein M. El-Husseiny
Evaluation of diastolic function is a pivotal challenge due to limitations of the conventional echocardiography, especially when the heart rate is rapid as in rats. Currently, by using color M-mode echocardiography (CMME), intraventricular pressure difference (IVPD) and intraventricular pressure gradient (IVPG) in early diastole can be generated and are available as echocardiographic indices. These indices are expected to be useful for the early diagnosis of heart failure (HF), especially diastolic dysfunction. There have not been any studies demonstrating changes in IVPD and IVPG in response to changes in loading conditions in rats. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate CMME-derived IVPD and IVPG changes in rats under various loading conditions. Twenty rats were included, divided into two groups for two different experiments, and underwent jugular vein catheterization under inhalational anesthetics. Conventional echocardiography, CMME, and 2D speckle tracking echocardiography were measured at the baseline (BL), after intravenous infusion of milrinone (MIL, n = 10), and after the infusion of hydroxyethyl starch (HES, n = 10). Left ventricular IVPD and IVPG were calculated from color M-mode images and categorized into total, basal, mid-to-apical, mid, and apical parts, and the percentage of the corresponding part was calculated. In comparison to the BL, the ejection fraction, mid-to-apical IVPG, mid IVPG, and apical IVPD were significantly increased after MIL administration (p &lt; 0.05); meanwhile, the end-diastolic volume, E-wave velocity, total IVPD, and basal IVPD were significantly increased with the administration of HES (p &lt; 0.05). The increase in mid-to-apical IVPD, mid IVPD, and apical IVPD indicated increased relaxation. A significant increase in basal IVPD reflected volume overloading by HES. CMME-derived IVPD and IVPG are useful tools for the evaluation of various loading conditions in rats. The approach used in this study provides a model for continuous data acquisition in chronic cardiac disease models without drug testing.
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