Lung cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths, leading to more than one million deaths annually worldwide. Lung cancer is more frequently diagnosed at an advanced metastatic stage, and survival rates are usually poor (Arbour and Riely, 2019; Skoulidis and Heymach, 2019). During tumor development, the tumor microenvironment, external stimuli, and internal stimuli can cause tumor-cell stress responses and key gene transcriptional abnormalities (Ben Mahdi et al., 2000; Begley et al., 2013; Dubey et al., 2013; Evans et al., 2016; Boedtkjer and Pedersen, 2019; Jing et al., 2019; Zhao and Shilatifard, 2019). Alternations in epigenetic regulation lead to abnormal gene expression, which is often closely related to the occurrence and development of tumors. Patients with lung cancer are usually accompanied by mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), tumor protein p53 (P53), and KRAS proto-oncogene (KRAS) (Bennett et al., 1999; Roman et al., 2018; Wu and Shih, 2018; Adderley et al., 2019). Mutations in erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2), another member of the EGFR family, are also reportedly common in patients with lung adenocarcinoma (Shigematsu et al., 2005).
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) means that epithelial cells elongate during transition to a mesenchymal phenotype and acquire the characteristics of movement and invasion (Chaffer et al., 2016). This transformation of epithelial cells is involved in a series of biological processes, including wound healing, inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer. In the pathogenesis of cancer, EMT promotes cancer progression by conferring highly invasive properties onto tumor cells (De Craene and Berx, 2013). The expression and activity of highly conserved EMT-inducing factors, including SNAIL, SLUG, ZEB1 and ZEB2, and TWIST1, can usually induce EMT in tumor cells (Shibue and Weinberg, 2017). Accumulated evidence indicates that the transcription complex containing EMT-inducing factors and histone-modifying enzymes plays an important role in EMT-mediated malignant tumor progression. For example, the SNAIL/HDAC1/HDAC2 complex promotes the EMT process of pancreatic cancer by inhibiting E-cadherin (von Burstin et al., 2009).
Minichromosome maintenance complex component 5 (MCM5), a mini chromosome-maintenance protein, is closely related to the structure of chromatin (Froelich et al., 2015). Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) is involved in wide-ranging transcriptional regulatory behaviors and plays a crucial role in the development of tumors (Nagarajan et al., 2020). Our study found that MCM5 interacted with HDAC1. The co-expression of HDAC1 and MCM5 in lung cancer patients indicated a poor prognosis. In vitro and in vivo experiments also showed that HDAC1 and MCM5 can promote the invasion and migration of EMT-dependent lung cancer cells. Astragaloside IV as the main component of Astragalus has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and immunomodulatory properties (Song et al., 2018; Zheng et al., 2019). Here, we found that astragaloside IV can block the interaction between HDAC1 and MCM5 to retard EMT progression in lung cancer. This study may provide a theoretical basis at the transcriptional level for drug development, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors.
Materials and Methods
The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Analysis
The Cancer Genome Atlas data were used to analyze the expression of MCM5 and HDAC1 and their effects on the survival of patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). In the TCGA database, a total of 483 cases of LUAD and 486 cases of LUSC and the corresponding normal tissues were used for analysis. EdgeR package was used to analyze RNA-Seq data from TCGA in RStudio software.
A total of 61 pairs of clinical lung cancer tissues and paired adjacent normal tissues were collected from patients. All patients’ samples were divided in accordance with clinical stage and pathological grading. The expression levels of MCM5 and HDAC1 in these samples were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) as follows. Twelve pairs of liquid-nitrogen-frozen tissue specimens were selected to analyze the expression of MCM5 by Western blot analysis. After the tissues were homogenized and treated with lysate, the experimental procedure of Western blot followed. All experiments in this study were approved by the Institutional Review Board and the Research Ethics Committee of Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, and written consent was obtained from all participants.
Cell Lines and Plasmids
The lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1975 were obtained from the Cell Bank of Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (Shanghai, China). SK-LU-1 cell line was purchased from Cell Resource Center of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (Beijing, China). H1975 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium (Gibco, United States), and A549 cells were cultured in F12K medium (Gibco, United States). SK-LU-1 cells were maintained in MEM medium (Gibco, United States). All culture media were supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 37°C in an incubator with 5% CO2. MCM5-Flag, MCM5, and HDAC1 expression plasmids were purchased from Sino Biological (Beijing, China).
When the transfected cells reached the logarithmic growth phase, they were digested with 0.25% trypsin and pipetted into single cells. Cells were seeded onto six-well plates at a density of 500 cells per well. The medium was replaced every 3 days and cultured for 14 days. When visible clones existed in the dish, the supernatant was discarded and carefully washed twice with PBS. Then, the clones were fixed with 4% formaldehyde for 10 min and stained with 0.1% crystal violet. Cell colonies with diameters exceeding 50 μm were counted.
The Transwell upper-chamber filters were coated with Matrigel (BD Biosciences). After transfection, the cells were placed in the upper chamber of the Transwell in serum-free media at a final concentration of 1 × 105 per well. About 500 μL of complete medium containing 10% FBS was added to the lower chamber. These cells were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The non-invasive cells in the top well were removed. Then, the membranes were fixed with 4% formaldehyde for 10 min and stained with 0.1% crystal violet. The invasive cells were photographed using a microscope (Nikon, Japan).
The transfected cells were seeded onto 24-well plates with 10% FBS culture for 24 h. Then, a linear wound was formed by scraping the cell layer with a 200 μL pipette tip. After removing the suspended cells, they were cultured in serum-free medium for 48 h. Photographs were taken at 0 and 48 h under a microscope (Nikon, Japan).
When the cells grown on the slide are confluent to 70–80%, immunofluorescence is performed. The cells were washed three times with 1 × PBS, fixed in 4% PFA at room temperature for 20 min, and then blocked and treated with 5% BSA containing 0.1% TritonX-100 at room temperature for 30 min. The cells were incubated with S9.6 antibody (1:100, Kerafast, United States) and E-cadherin antibody (1:50, CST, United States) diluted in PBS overnight at 4°C. The primary antibody was removed, and the cells were washed three times with 1 × PBS. After the labeled secondary antibody was incubated for 2 h at room temperature, images were acquired using a laser scanning confocal microscope (Nikon, Japan).
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
Cells were seeded onto glass slides in a 24-well plate. After being treated and cultured for 24 h, the cells were fixed overnight at a low temperature with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. After discarding the glutaraldehyde, the cells were dehydrated with different concentrations of ethanol (30–100%). After treating the cells with different concentrations of tert-butanol (30–100%), they were frozen at 4°C and vacuum dried. Gold-coated cells were photographed using a scanning electron microscope (JEOL 6000, Japan).
Cells were transfected with flag-MCM5. After 48 h, the cellular extracts were collected and incubated with anti-Flag affinity gel (Sigma, United States) for 12 h at 4°C. The collected eluate was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE. Subsequently, silver staining was performed using a Fast Silver Stain Kit (Beyotime, China).
Immunoprecipitation and Western Blot Analysis
After transfection, cell extracts were harvested using lysis buffer (Beyotime, China).
For Western blot analysis, the proteins were separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and transferred onto PVDF membranes (Millipore, United States). The membranes were blocked and incubated with the primary antibodies of MCM5 (ab75975, Abcam, United Kingdom, 1:1000), HDAC1 (ab7028, Abcam, United Kingdom, 1:500), E-cadherin (3195, CST, United States), Vimentin (5741, CST, United States), MMP2 (40994, CST, United States), MMP9 (13667, CST, United States), and GAPDH (ab8245, Abcam, United Kingdom, 1:2000) at 4°C. GAPDH served as the loading control. After 2 h, the membranes were incubated with a horseradish peroxidase-labeled secondary antibody (Affinity, China, 1:2000). Protein expression was visualized using an enhanced chemiluminescence substrate (Millipore, United States). For immunoprecipitation, the cell extracts were centrifuged and incubated with specific primary antibodies at 4°C overnight with constant rotation. After incubation with Protein A agarose beads and washed thrice with lysate, the harvest protein was boiled for 10 min, separated through 10% SDS-PAGE, transferred onto a PVDF membrane, and detected using specific antibodies.
Protein–Protein Docking and Molecular Screening
The protein crystal structures of MCM5 (PDBID: 6XTX) and HDAC1 (PDBID: 4BKX) can be downloaded from the Protein Database (PDB) website. Hydrogenation, steric hindrance, and hydrogen-bond optimization were performed to eliminate the spatial three-dimensional conflict between amino acids. HEX software was used for protein–protein docking. MCM5 protein was selected as the receptor and HDAC1 structure as the ligand. The following docking parameters were selected: (1) protein-surface structure and (2) surface potential. Based on the MCM5/HDAC1 complex structure obtained by docking, the protein-interaction interface was selected as the active pocket. According to the characteristics of this active pocket, high-throughput screening of TCM database was conducted. The XYZ size of the active pocket was 60 × 60 × 60. The three-dimensional structure of astragaloside IV was generated and pretreated using LigPrep. The structure of astragaloside IV was minimized with an OPLS-2005 force field. The ligand-receptor binding conformation was demonstrated by PyMol software.
In vivo Experiment
To verify the role of MCM5 and HDAC1 expression in vivo, 24 five-week-old BALB/c nude mice were purchased from Charles River (Beijing, China). The mice were randomly divided into four groups. Cells stably expressing luciferase were transfected with MCM5 or HDAC1 expression plasmid. A total of 5 × 106 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into BALB/c nude mice. To verify the effect of astragaloside IV on tumor growth in vivo after blocking the interaction of HDAC with MCM5, we inoculated the cells subcutaneously into mice. When the tumor size reached 50 mm3, astragaloside IV was administered at a concentration of 20 mg/kg. It was administered once every 2 days for a total of 20 days. Tumor size and mouse survival were measured every 3 days. Tumor volume was calculated using the following formula: tumor volume = (length × width2)/2. All animals were euthanized through the intravenous injection of barbiturate at a final concentration of 100 mg/kg. Then, the solid tumors were harvested from the mice by surgery, and tumor volume was calculated. All tissues were fixed in 4% formalin and embedded in paraffin for H&E histological and IHC staining. All animal experiments were performed in accordance with relevant ethical standards, and the protocol was approved by the Tianjin Medical University Animal Ethics Committee.
The paraffin-embedded tissue was cut into 4 μm-thick sections. After treatment with xylene and different concentrations of ethanol, the slices were immersed in 0.01 M citrate buffer solution, and antigen retrieval was achieved through microwave heating. After washing three times with PBS and blocking in 5% BSA, the sections were incubated with primary antibodies (MCM5, 1:200; HDAC1, 1:100; and E-cadherin, 1:50) at 4°C overnight. A DAB staining kit was used to detect protein expression. Finally, sections were stained with hematoxylin for 2 min. IHC staining scores were assessed by two pathologists. The staining score was assessed as 0 (negative), 1 (weak), 2 (moderate), and 3 (strong).
All statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism V.6.0. Comparisons between two groups were performed using Student’s t-test, whereas comparisons among three or more groups were conducted using ANOVA with Dunnett’s post-test. Differences were considered significant at P < 0.05 and labeled with ∗.
MCM5 Was Highly Expressed in Lung Cancer and Associated With Poor Outcomes
According to the Human Protein Atlas, MCM5 was more highly expressed in lung cancer than in normal tissues (Figure 1A). Consistently, the database of TCGA showed that MCM5 mRNA levels in human LUAD and LUSC tissues were upregulated compared with those in normal tissues (Figures 1B,C). A high level of MCM5 expression was associated with reduced overall survival time in LUAD (Figure 1D), whereas MCM5 expression was not significantly related to the survival of patients with LUSC. The protein levels of MCM5 in 12 pairs of fresh tumor tissues and paired adjacent normal tissues were determined to verify the expression of MCM5 in LUAD. Results were consistent with the TCGA results, which showed that MCM5 expression in LUAD was higher than that in normal tissues (Figure 1E). These findings suggested that MCM5 was likely to be closely related to the malignant evolution of lung cancer rather than to tumor genesis.
Figure 1. High levels of MCM5 in lung cancer. (A) IHC staining results for MCM5 in lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous cell carcinoma from the Human Protein Atlas database. (B) MCM5 expression in lung adenocarcinoma compared with that in normal lung tissue from the TCGA database. (C) MCM5 expression in lung squamous cell carcinoma compared with that in normal lung tissue from the TCGA database. (D) Effect of MCM5 expression on the overall survival of lung adenocarcinoma. (E) Western blot detection of MCM5 protein expression in 12 pairs of lung adenocarcinoma and adjacent normal tissues. *P < 0.05.
MCM5 Contributed to Lung Cancer Progression in vitro
We detected the protein expression of MCM5 in six lung cancer cells (Figure 2A) and then selected the A549 and H1975 cells with the lowest MCM5 expression to overexpress MCM5 (Figure 2B). First, the changes in cell phenotype were observed through SEM. After overexpressing MCM5, the pseudopods in cells decreased, but more pseudopods. This finding suggested a reduction in cell adhesion (Figure 2C). Clone formation, Transwell, and wound-healing assays were then used to verify the function of MCM5 in lung cancer cell invasion and proliferation. The results of these assays indicated that the ectopic expression of MCM5 can promote the proliferation (Figure 2D), invasion (Figure 2E), and migration (Figure 2F) of lung cancer cells. These findings suggested that MCM5 may be related to the proliferation and metastasis of lung cancer.
Figure 2. MCM5 promoted the proliferation and invasion of lung cancer cells. (A) Western blots were used to detect the expression of MCM5 in six lung cancer cell lines. Then, we overexpressed MCM5 in A549 and H1975 cells and tested the effect of MCM5 on lung cancer cell function. (B) MCM5 protein level after overexpression of MCM5 in A549 and H1975 cells. (C) Morphological changes in A549 and H1975 cells transfected with MCM5 and observed with SEM. (D) Colony formation of A549 and H1975 cells after MCM5 overexpression. (E,F) Cell invasion and migration of A549 and H1975 cells after MCM5 transfection, respectively. *P < 0.05.
MCM5 Interacted With HDAC1 and Was Correlated With Poor Survival in Lung Cancer
Given that MCM5 is extensively involved in chromatin structure, the functional specificity of MCM5 in lung cancer may be related to specific gene interactions. Therefore, after transfection with the MCM5 overexpression plasmid carrying the Flag tag, a pulldown experiment was performed using Flag magnetic beads. The MDAC5 interaction protein was found to have high HDAC1 enrichment (Figure 3A). We then used molecular docking to validate the binding of MCM5 and HDAC1 (Figure 3B). The total proteins from lung cancer cells were extracted, and coimmunoprecipitation was performed to further confirm the interaction between MCM5 and HDAC1. The results of this assay demonstrated that MCM5 efficiently interacted with HDAC1 (Figure 3C). According to the binding site of MCM5 and HDAC1 predicted by molecular docking, we expressed MCM5 fusion proteins with GST tags of different lengths. Interaction with HDAC1 protein showed that full-length and 300-amino acid length MCM5 had strong binding to HDAC1. However, when MCM5 protein was shortened to 200 amino acid length, the binding of MCM5 to HDAC1 obviously weakened (Figure 3D). Further analysis of the TCGA data showed that HDAC1 was highly expressed in lung cancer (Figure 3E). Additionally, the high expression of HDAC1 alone had a negligible effect on the prognosis of patients with lung cancer, whereas patients with both high expression of HDAC1 and MCM5 had short survival times (Figure 3F).
Figure 3. MCM5 interacted with HDAC1 and was correlated with poor survival in lung cancer. (A) Silver staining identifies the interacting proteins of MCM5. (B) Molecular docking between MCM5 (PDBID: 6XTX) and HDAC1 (PDBID: 4BKX). (C) Co-immunoprecipitation was used to detect the interaction between MCM5 and HDAC1 in A549 cells. (D) In vitro interaction analysis of truncated MCM5 and HDAC1. (E) HDAC1 expression level in lung cancer tumors and normal liver tissues based on the TCGA dataset. (F) Survival analysis of TCGA samples for the relationship of survival time with MCM5 and HDAC1 expression levels in patients with lung cancer. Data are presented as mean ± SD. *P < 0.05.
MCM5/HDAC1 Complex Promoted the Lung Cancer Cell Invasion and Migration
Overexpression of MCM5 or HDAC1 alone or together (Figure 4A), as well as their effect on lung cancer cells’ invasion and migration abilities, was detected. Results showed that compared with the expression of MCM5 and HDAC1 alone, the simultaneous expression of these two genes had a stronger promotion effect on the migration (Figure 4B) and invasion (Figure 4C) capabilities of lung cancer cells. We then knocked down one of the genes in cells overexpressing HDAC1 and MCM5 to determine whether it can reverse the effect of the complex. SEM results showed that the cell morphology changed more obviously after knocking down HDAC1 (Figure 4D). The Transwell and wound-healing experiments showed that the knockdown of HDAC1 had a more obvious reversal effect on the invasion and migration ability of H1975 cells (Figures 4E,F). Finally, Western blot results showed that after knocking down HDAC1, the expression of E-cadherin was up-regulated, whereas the expression of Vimentin and MMPs was down-regulated (Figure 4G), because HDAC1 can bind to the promoter of E-cadherin. To detect the regulation of E-cadherin transcription by HDAC1/MCM5, immunofluorescence was used to detect MCM5 and R-loop levels. The results showed that HDAC1 could inhibit the expression of E-cadherin, and after co-expression with MCM5, the expression of E-cadherin was inhibited to a greater extent, and the level of R-loop was up-regulated (Supplementary Figure 1).
Figure 4. MCM5/HDAC1 complex promoted lung cancer migration and invasion. After MCM5 and HDAC1 were expressed separately or co-expressed in H1975 cells, the cell function and the expression changes of EMT-related markers were detected. (A) Western blot analysis of HDAC1 and MCM5 expression. (B,C) The invasion and migration of H1975 cells after HDAC1 and MCMM5 expression. (D) Morphological changes in MCM5/HDAC1 overexpression H1975 cells after transfection with siMCM5 or siHDAC1 as observed by SEM. (E,F) Results of the invasion and migration of H1975 cells under different treatments. (G) Western blots of H1975 cells of E-cadherin, anti-Vimentin, anti-MMP2, and anti-MMP9 under different treatments. *P < 0.05.
MCM5/HDAC1 Complex Promoted Tumor Proliferation and Lung Cancer Metastasis
The above in vitro experiments suggested that the interaction between MCM5 and HDAC1 can promote the proliferation and invasion of lung cancer cells. H1975 cells stably expressing MCM5 and HDAC1 were inoculated into Balb/c nude mice to verify their effect in vivo. The subcutaneously inoculated tumors were removed, and results showed that the co-expression of MCM5 and HDAC1 can indeed promote tumor growth (Figures 5A,B). The IHC results for solid tumors showed that E-cadherin expression was significantly inhibited in the interaction between MCM5 and HDAC1 (Figures 5C,D). Furthermore, the tail-vein model showed that the interaction between MCM5 and HDAC1 had a stronger effect on promoting tumor metastasis than other groups (Figure 5E).
Figure 5. MCM5/HDAC1 complex promoted tumor proliferation and lung cancer metastasis. After H1975 cells overexpressing MCM5 and HDAC1 were inoculated into nude mice, the harvested tumors were used to detect the expression of MCM5, HDAC1, and E-cadherin by IHC test in solid tumors. (A) Images of tumors under different treatments. (B) Evaluation of tumor growth at different times. (C,D) Detection of MCM5, HDAC1, and E-cadherin expressions in tumors through immunohistochemistry. (E) Representative images of in vivo bioluminescence imaging. *P < 0.05.
High Levels of MCMC5 and HDAC1 Caused Poor Prognosis in Lung Cancer Patients
To verify the effect of the interaction between HDAC1 and MCM on the survival of patients with lung cancer, we used IHC to test the expression of HDAC1 and MCMC5 in 61 lung cancer specimens. Results showed that the expression of MCM5 and HDAC1 was higher in high-grade tumors than in low-grade ones (Figures 6A–C). Conversely, the expression of E-cadherin was lower in high-grade and metastatic lung cancer (Figures 6D,E). We divided lung cancer patients into two groups based on the IHC results. According to the analysis of patient survival, we found that patients with high expression of MCM5 and HDAC1 had shorter survival time (Figure 6F).
Figure 6. MCM5/HDAC1 complex led to poor prognosis in lung cancer patients. Sixty-one clinical lung cancer tissues were collected and used to analyze MCM5, HDAC1, and E-cadherin expression, as well as their effect on survival rate. (A) Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect MCM5 and HDAC1 expression in lung cancer tissues at different clinical stages. (B) MCM5 expression in lung cancer patients. (C) HDAC1 expression in lung cancer patients. (D) E-cadherin expression in lung cancer tissues at different clinical stages. (E) E-cadherin expression in metastatic and non-metastatic lung cancer. (F) Kaplan–Meier plots of the overall survival rate of patients with lung cancer having low (blue) or high (red) MCM5/HDAC1 levels. *P < 0.05.
Astragaloside IV Blocked the Interaction Between HDAC1 and MCM5
The above results showed that the interaction between HDAC1 and MCM5 can lead to the malignant progression of lung cancer, so we speculated that blocking this interaction may achieve the effect of inhibiting this type of lung cancer. Through computer virtual screening, we found that astragaloside IV can block the binding between HDAC1 and MCM5 (Figure 7A). Next, we treated SK-LU-1 cells with astragaloside IV and then used Co-IP to detect the binding of MCM5 to HDAC1. Results revealed that the binding ability of MCM5 to HDAC1 weakened after treatment with astragaloside IV (Figure 7B). Thus, astragaloside IV can indeed block the interaction between MCM5 and HDAC1. Western blot experiments also confirmed that astragaloside IV (50 μM) treatment can restore E-cadherin expression (Figure 7C). Astragaloside IV with a final concentration of 50 μM was added to the medium. After 48 h, wound healing and transwell experiments were used to detect the effects of astragaloside IV on cell migration and invasion. Results showed that astragaloside IV can inhibit the migration (Figure 7D) and invasion ability (Figure 7E) of SK-LU-1 cells. We also verified through in vivo experiments that astragaloside IV can inhibit the growth of lung cancer tumors (Figure 7F). High expression of E-cadherin was further found in solid tumors of animals treated with astragaloside IV (Figure 7G).
Figure 7. Astragaloside IV inhibited lung cancer malignant progression. Tumor-bearing animals and SK-LU-1 cells were treated with astragaloside IV. (A) Molecular docking of MCM5/HDAC1 complex and astragaloside IV. (B) Co-immunoprecipitation was used to analyze the binding between MCM5 and HDAC1 after astragaloside IV treatment. (C) MCM5, HDAC1, and E-cadherin expression after astragaloside IV treatment. (D) Would-healing assay. (E) Invasive-ability analysis. (F) Images of subcutaneous tumors. (G) Detection of E-cadherin in tumors by immunohistochemistry. *P < 0.05.
Metastasis is a crucial determinant of cancer-related mortality (Wan et al., 2013). In EMT-related tumor metastasis, decreased E-cadherin and increased Vimentin weaken the adhesion of tumor cells and lead to strengthened mobility (Pastushenko and Blanpain, 2019). The expression of E-cadherin is regulated by multiple transcription factors, including EMT-inducing factors, SNAIL, SLUG, and TWIST, which can bind to the E-box of the promoter of E-cadherin to inhibit the transcription of E-cadherin (von Burstin et al., 2009; Shiota et al., 2010; Ye et al., 2010). HDAC1 has been reported to be recruited by ZEB1 and participated in the transcriptional regulation of E-cadherin (Aghdassi et al., 2012). The present study found that after HDAC1 interacted with MCM5, the expression of E-cadherin was down-regulated, whereas the expression of Vimentin and MMPs was up-regulated. This finding indicated that the MCM5/HDAC1 transcription complex was involved in the EMT process of lung cancer. Interestingly, we found that the fluorescence signal of R-loop increased after the overexpression of HDAC1 and MCM5, which may indicate that after interacting with MCM5, it may change the chromatin structure of DNA bound by HDAC1, thereby regulating the transcription of these genes. Therefore, HDAC1’s regulation of EMT-related genes may be related to the higher level chromatin structure.
Epigenetic modifications such as histone acetylation are essential for regulating gene expression in cells. The pathological epigenetic modification of cancer cells promotes and maintains the occurrence and development of tumors (Toh et al., 2017). Accordingly, epigenetic manipulation is emerging as a new type of targeted therapy for cancer. Histone acetylases and histone deacetylases regulate histone acetylation, thereby regulating gene expression (Shen et al., 2015). HDAC1 is extensively involved in transcriptional regulation and plays a crucial role in the evolution of various tumors (Lin et al., 2016; Tharkar-Promod et al., 2018; Vlaming et al., 2019). Herein, we also found the high expression of HDAC1 in lung adenocarcinoma. Moreover, HDAC1 was found to interact with MCM5. Among patients with lung adenocarcinoma, the co-expression of HDAC1 and MCM5 had the poorest survival. This finding suggested the role of the interaction between HDAC1 and MCM5 in the progression of lung adenocarcinoma. Our in vitro and in vivo experiments further showed that the co-overexpression of HDAC1 and MCM5 can promote the proliferation and metastasis of lung cancer cells. Inevitably, the HDAC1/MCM5 transcription complex may also contain other transcription factors or transcription cofactors, which we have not yet identified. Additionally, after we used astragaloside IV to block the binding between HDAC1 and MCM5, it showed antitumor effects in cell and animal experiments. This finding illustrated the antitumor effect of astragaloside IV and confirmed the role of the HDAC1/MCM5 complex in the malignant progression of lung cancer. Astragaloside IV has been proven to have anti-inflammatory activity, enhancing drug resistance and promoting apoptosis (Dong et al., 2017; Cai et al., 2018; Zheng et al., 2019). Herein, we cannot rule out that astragaloside IV exerted antitumor effects in addition to blocking the interaction between HDAC1 and MCM5 through other pathways.
Overall, we found that MCM5 can aggravate the promotion of HDAC1 on the EMT-dependent malignant progression of lung cancer. However, small molecule compound Astragaloside IV can block the interaction between HDAC1 and MCM5 and inhibit its contribution to lung cancer cell metastasis and proliferation. This research may provide theoretical and experimental support for the development of anti-tumor drugs for transcription complex interface inhibitors.
Data Availability Statement
The datasets presented in this study can be found in online repositories. The names of the repository/repositories and accession number(s) can be found in the article/Supplementary Material.
The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by the Tianjin Medical University Animal Ethics Committee. The patients/participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study. The animal study was reviewed and approved by the Tianjin Medical University Animal Ethics Committee.
YZ was responsible for the experimental design and financial support. L-LZ was responsible for article writing and cell experiments. QL was responsible for the pathology experiment. W-JZ was responsible for data analysis and cell experiments. X-JS was responsible for animal experiments. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.
This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31501159) and the Tianjin Science and Technology Key Project on Chronic Disease Prevention and Treatment (Grant No. 16ZXMJSY00020).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcell.2021.669132/full#supplementary-material
EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; EMT, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; FBS, fetal bovine serum; HDAC1, histone deacetylase 1; MCM5, minichromosome maintenance complex component 5; NSCLC, non-small cell lung cancer.
Adderley, H., Blackhall, F. H., and Lindsay, C. R. (2019). KRAS-mutant non-small cell lung cancer: converging small molecules and immune checkpoint inhibition. EBioMedicine 41, 711–716. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.02.049
Aghdassi, A., Sendler, M., Guenther, A., Mayerle, J., Behn, C. O., Heidecke, C. D., et al. (2012). Recruitment of histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC2 by the transcriptional repressor ZEB1 downregulates E-cadherin expression in pancreatic cancer. Gut 61, 439–448. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2011-300060
Begley, U., Sosa, M. S., Avivar-Valderas, A., Patil, A., Endres, L., Estrada, Y., et al. (2013). A human tRNA methyltransferase 9-like protein prevents tumour growth by regulating LIN9 and HIF1-alpha. EMBO Mol. Med. 5, 366–383. doi: 10.1002/emmm.201201161
Bennett, W. P., Hussain, S. P., Vahakangas, K. H., Khan, M. A., Shields, P. G., Harris, C. C., et al. (1999). Molecular epidemiology of human cancer risk: gene-environment interactions and p53 mutation spectrum in human lung cancer. J. Pathol. 187, 8–18. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1096-9896(199901)187:1<8::aid-path232>3.0.co;2-y
Cai, T., Zhang, C., Zhao, Z., Li, S., Cai, H., Chen, X., et al. (2018). The gastric mucosal protective effects of astragaloside IV in mnng-induced GPL rats. Biomed. Pharmacother. 104, 291–299. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.04.013
Dong, Z., Zhou, J., Zhang, Y., Chen, Y., Yang, Z., Huang, G., et al. (2017). Astragaloside-IV alleviates heat-induced inflammation by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy. Cell Physiol. Biochem. 42, 824–837. doi: 10.1159/000478626
Dubey, R., Levin, M. D., Szabo, L. Z., Laszlo, C. F., Kushal, S., Singh, J. B., et al. (2013). Suppression of tumor growth by designed dimeric epidithiodiketopiperazine targeting hypoxia-inducible transcription factor complex. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 4537–4549. doi: 10.1021/ja400805b
Evans, C. E., Bendahl, P. O., Belting, M., Branco, C., Johnson, R. S., et al. (2016). Diverse roles of cell-specific hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in cancer-associated hypercoagulation. Blood 127, 1355–1360. doi: 10.1182/blood-2015-09-671982
Lin, C. W., Wang, L. K., Wang, S. P., Chang, Y. L., Wu, Y. Y., Chen, H. Y., et al. (2016). Daxx inhibits hypoxia-induced lung cancer cell metastasis by suppressing the HIF-1alpha/HDAC1/Slug axis. Nat. Commun. 7:13867.
Nagarajan, S., Rao, S. V., Sutton, J., Cheeseman, D., Dunn, S., Papachristou, E. K., et al. (2020). Author Correction: ARID1A influences HDAC1/BRD4 activity, intrinsic proliferative capacity and breast cancer treatment response. Nat. Genet. 52:354. doi: 10.1038/s41588-020-0582-9
Roman, M., Baraibar, I., López, I., Nadal, E., Rolfo, C., Vicent, S., et al. (2018). KRAS oncogene in non-small cell lung cancer: clinical perspectives on the treatment of an old target. Mol. Cancer 17:33.
Shigematsu, H., Takahashi, T., Nomura, M., Majmudar, K., Suzuki, M., Lee, H., et al. (2005). Somatic mutations of the HER2 kinase domain in lung adenocarcinomas. Cancer Res. 65, 1642–1646. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.can-04-4235
Shiota, M., Song, Y., Yokomizo, A., Kiyoshima, K., Tada, Y., Uchino, H., et al. (2010). Foxo3a suppression of urothelial cancer invasiveness through Twist1, Y-box-binding protein 1, and E-cadherin regulation. Clin. Cancer Res. 16, 5654–5663. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-10-0376
Song, M. T., Ruan, J., Zhang, R. Y., Deng, J., Ma, Z. Q., Ma, S. P., et al. (2018). Astragaloside IV ameliorates neuroinflammation-induced depressive-like behaviors in mice via the PPARgamma/NF-kappaB/NLRP3 inflammasome axis. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 39, 1559–1570. doi: 10.1038/aps.2017.208
Tharkar-Promod, S., Johnson, D. P., Bennett, S. E., Dennis, E. M., Banowsky, B. G., Jones, S. S., et al. (2018). HDAC1,2 inhibition and doxorubicin impair Mre11-dependent DNA repair and DISC to override BCR-ABL1-driven DSB repair in Philadelphia chromosome-positive B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia 32, 49–60. doi: 10.1038/leu.2017.174
Vlaming, H., McLean, C. M., Korthout, T., Alemdehy, M. F., Hendriks, S., Lancini, C., et al. (2019). Conserved crosstalk between histone deacetylation and H3K79 methylation generates DOT1L-dose dependency in HDAC1-deficient thymic lymphoma. EMBO J. 38:e101564.
von Burstin, J., Eser, S., Paul, M. C., Seidler, B., Brandl, M., Messer, M., et al. (2009). E-cadherin regulates metastasis of pancreatic cancer in vivo and is suppressed by a SNAIL/HDAC1/HDAC2 repressor complex. Gastroenterology 137, 361–71, 371.e1–5.