Antibiotics, Vol. 10, Pages 1176: Effect of N-Acetylcysteine in Combination with Antibiotics on the Biofilms of Three Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens of Emerging Importance
Antibiotics doi: 10.3390/antibiotics10101176
Simone K. Visser
Warwick J. Britton
Gregory S. Whiteley
Frederik H. Kriel
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder causing dysfunctional ion transport resulting in accumulation of viscous mucus that fosters chronic bacterial biofilm-associated infection in the airways. Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are increasingly prevalent CF pathogens and while Burkholderia cencocepacia is slowly decreasing; all are complicated by multidrug resistance that is enhanced by biofilm formation. This study investigates potential synergy between the antibiotics ciprofloxacin (0.5–128 µg/mL), colistin (0.5–128 µg/mL) and tobramycin (0.5–128 µg/mL) when combined with the neutral pH form of N-Acetylcysteine (NACneutral) (0.5–16.3 mg/mL) against 11 cystic fibrosis strains of Burkholderia, Stenotrophomonas and Achromobacter sp. in planktonic and biofilm cultures. We screened for potential synergism using checkerboard assays from which fraction inhibitory concentration indices (FICI) were calculated. Synergistic (FICI ≤ 0.5) and additive (0.5 &gt; FICI ≥ 1) combinations were tested on irreversibly attached bacteria and 48 h mature biofilms via time-course and colony forming units (CFU/mL) assays. This study suggests that planktonic FICI analysis does not necessarily translate to reduction in bacterial loads in a biofilm model. Future directions include refining synergy testing and determining further mechanisms of action of NAC to understand how it may interact with antibiotics to better predict synergy.
Free full text: Read More