IJMS, Vol. 22, Pages 10390: Upregulation of the APOBEC3 Family Is Associated with a Poor Prognosis and Influences Treatment Response to Raf Inhibitors in Low Grade Glioma
International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms221910390
Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) has been identified as a group of enzymes that catalyze cytosine deamination in single-stranded (ss) DNA to form uracil, causing somatic mutations in some cancers. We analyzed the APOBEC3 family in 33 TCGA cancer types and the results indicated that APOBEC3s are upregulated in multiple cancers and strongly correlate with prognosis, particularly in low grade glioma (LGG). Then we constructed a prognostic model based on family expression in LGG where the APOBEC3 family signature is an accurate predictive model (AUC of 0.85). Gene mutation, copy number variation (CNV), and a differential gene expression (DEG) analysis were performed in different risk groups, and the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was employed to clarify the role of various members in LGG; CIBERSORT algorithm was deployed to evaluate the landscape of LGG immune infiltration. We found that upregulation of the APOBEC3 family expression can strengthen Ras/MAPK signaling pathway, promote tumor progression, and ultimately reduce the treatment benefits of Raf inhibitors. Moreover, the APOBEC3 family was shown to enhance the immune response mediated by myeloid cells and interferon gamma, as well as PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression, implying that they have immunotherapy potential. Therefore, the APOBEC3 signature enables an efficient assessment of LGG patient survival outcomes and expansion of clinical benefits by selecting appropriate individualized treatment strategies.
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