Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 5855: Unraveling the Compositional and Molecular Features Involved in Lysozyme-Benzothiazole Derivative Interactions
Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules26195855
Juan M. Ruso
In this work we present a computational analysis together with experimental studies, focusing on the interaction between a benzothiazole (BTS) and lysozyme. Results obtained from isothermal titration calorimetry, UV-vis, and fluorescence were contrasted and complemented with molecular docking and machine learning techniques. The free energy values obtained both experimentally and theoretically showed excellent similarity. Calorimetry, UV-vis, and 3D/2D-lig-plot analysis revealed that the most relevant interactions between BTS and lysozyme are based on a predominance of aromatic, hydrophobic Van der Waals interactions, mainly aromatic edge-to-face (T-shaped) π-π stacking interactions between the benzene ring belonging to the 2-(methylthio)-benzothiazole moiety of BTS and the aromatic amino acid residue TRP108 of the lysozyme receptor. Next, conventional hydrogen bonding interactions contribute to the stability of the BTS-lysozyme coupling complex. In addition, mechanistic approaches performed using elastic network models revealed that the BTS ligand theoretically induces propagation of allosteric signals, suggesting non-physiological conformational flexing in large blocks of lysozyme affecting α-helices. Likewise, the BTS ligand interacts directly with allosteric residues, inducing perturbations in the conformational dynamics expressed as a moderate conformational softening in the α-helices H1, H2, and their corresponding β-loop in the lysozyme receptor, in contrast to the unbound state of lysozyme.
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