Nanomaterials, Vol. 11, Pages 2510: Carbon-Based Nanomaterials Increase Reactivity of Primary Monocytes towards Various Bacteria and Modulate Their Differentiation into Macrophages
Nanomaterials doi: 10.3390/nano11102510
The evaluation of carbon-based nanomaterials’ (C-BNMs’) interactions with the immune system, notably their ability to cause inflammation, is a critical step in C-BNM health risk assessment. Particular attention should be given to those C-BNMs that do not cause direct cytotoxicity or inflammation on their own. However, the intracellular presence of these non-biodegradable nanomaterials could dysregulate additional cell functions. This is even more crucial in the case of phagocytes, which are the main mediators of defensive inflammation towards pathogens. Hence, our study was focused on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and two different types of graphene platelets (GPs) and whether their intracellular presence modulates a proinflammatory response from human primary monocytes towards common pathogens. Firstly, we confirmed that all tested C-BNMs caused neither direct cytotoxicity nor the release of tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 or IL-10. However, such pre-exposed monocytes showed increased responsiveness to additional bacterial stimuli. In response to several types of bacteria, monocytes pre-treated with GP1 produced a significantly higher quantity of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10. Monocytes pre-treated with MWCNTs produced increased levels of IL-10. All the tested C-BNMs enhanced monocyte phagocytosis and accelerated their differentiation towards macrophages. This study confirms the immunomodulatory potential of C-BNMs.
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