Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 5900: GSH/ROS Dual-Responsive Supramolecular Nanoparticles Based on Pillararene and Betulinic Acid Prodrug for Chemo–Chemodynamic Combination Therapy
Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules26195900
Chemodynamic therapy (CDT) based on intracellular Fenton reactions is attracting increasing interest in cancer treatment. A simple and novel method to regulate the tumor microenvironment for improved CDT with satisfactory effectiveness is urgently needed. Therefore, glutathione (GSH)/ROS (reactive oxygen species) dual-responsive supramolecular nanoparticles (GOx@BNPs) for chemo–chemodynamic combination therapy were constructed via host–guest complexation between water-soluble pillararene and the ferrocene-modified natural anticancer product betulinic acid (BA) prodrug, followed by encapsulation of glucose oxidase (GOx) in the nanoparticles. The novel supramolecular nanoparticles could be activated by the overexpressed GSH and ROS in the tumor microenvironment (TME), not only accelerating the dissociation of nanoparticles—and, thus, improving the BA recovery and release capability in tumors—but also showing the high-efficiency conversion of glucose into hydroxyl radicals (·OH) in succession through intracellular Fenton reactions. Investigation of antitumor activity and mechanisms revealed that the dramatic suppression of cancer cell growth induced by GOx@BNPs was derived from the elevation of ROS, decrease in ATP and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) and, finally, cell apoptosis. This work presents a novel method for the regulation of the tumor microenvironment for improved CDT, and the preparation of novel GSH/ROS dual-responsive supramolecular nanoparticles, which could exert significant cytotoxicity against cancer cells through the synergistic interaction of chemodynamic therapy, starvation therapy, and chemotherapy (CDT/ST/CT).
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