Nutrients, Vol. 13, Pages 3448: Dose- and Sex-Dependent Changes in Hemoglobin Oxygen Affinity by the Micronutrient 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and α-Ketoglutaric Acid
Nutrients doi: 10.3390/nu13103448
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is known to increase hemoglobin oxygen affinity (Hb–O2 affinity) and to induce a left shift of the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC). It is under investigation as a therapeutic agent in sickle cell anemia and in conditions where pulmonary oxygen uptake is deteriorated or limited (e.g., various clinical conditions or altitude exposure). The combination of 5-HMF and α-ketoglutaric acid (αKG) is commercially available as a nutritional supplement. To further elucidate dose effects, ODCs were measured in vitro in venous whole blood samples of 20 healthy volunteers (10 female and 10 male) after the addition of three different doses of 5-HMF, αKG and the combination of both. Linear regression analysis revealed a strong dose-dependent increase in Hb–O2 affinity for 5-HMF (R2 = 0.887; p &lt; 0.001) and the commercially available combination with αKG (R2 = 0.882; p &lt; 0.001). αKG alone increased Hb–O2 affinity as well but to a lower extent. Both the combination (5-HMF + αKG) and 5-HMF alone exerted different P50 and Hill coefficient responses overall and between sexes, with more pronounced effects in females. With increasing Hb–O2 affinity, the sigmoidal shape of the ODC was better preserved by the combination of 5-HMF and αKG than by 5-HMF alone. Concerning the therapeutic effects of 5-HMF, this study emphasizes the importance of adequate dosing in various physiological and clinical conditions, where a left-shifted ODC might be beneficial. By preserving the sigmoidal shape of the ODC, the combination of 5-HMF and αKG at low (both sexes) and medium (males only) doses might be able to better maintain efficient oxygen transport, particularly by mitigating potentially deteriorated oxygen unloading in the tissue. However, expanding knowledge on the interaction between 5-HMF and Hb–O2 affinity in vitro necessitates further investigations in vivo to additionally assess pharmacokinetic mechanisms.
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