Sustainability, Vol. 13, Pages 10814: Coffee (Coffea arabica L.): Methods, Objectives, and Future Strategies of Breeding in Ethiopia—Review
Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su131910814
Yebirzaf Yeshiwas Melese
Semagn Asredie Kolech
Coffea arabica L. belongs to the Rubiaceae family, and the genus Coffea is believed to have a primary center of origin and genetic variability in the highlands of southwestern Ethiopia. It is a vital beverage commodity across the world and a valuable export product, ranking second in international trade after petroleum. Ethiopia is among the top five major coffee-producing countries and is Africa’s leading producer. However, its full production capacity has not yet been exploited, and research efforts to reduce biotic and abiotic factors through reproduction have been extremely limited. Hence, improvement through different breeding methods is essential to overcome the constraints in its production. Thus, the objective of this study is to review the different breeding methods applied for different traits in Ethiopia. Breeding methods depend on the type and the source of traits and the final breeding objectives. The main breeding objectives are production, resistance/tolerance to diseases, and cup quality. The commonly applied breeding methods are selected and intra-specific hybridization, germplasm enhancement, and the development of improved varieties with wider adaptability. There is also a practice of crossing parental lines selected for certain desirable traits for the development of hybrid varieties. Accordingly, some promising success has been obtained. Forty-one coffee varieties have been released so far. Because conventional breeding methods are time-consuming, integrating conventional breeding methods with biotechnological techniques could have an instrumental role in the rapid development of suitable varieties for the changing climate.
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