Animals, Vol. 11, Pages 2942: Reviewing the Benefits of Grazing/Browsing Semiarid Rangeland Feed Resources and the Transference of Bioactivity and Pro-Healthy Properties to Goat Milk and Cheese: Obesity, Insulin Resistance, Inflammation and Hepatic Steatosis Prevention
Animals doi: 10.3390/ani11102942
The rangeland is an ecological resource that provides multiple benefits for environment and agriculture. Grazing/browsing on rangelands is a useful and inexpensive means to produce food derived from animal products. The aim of this study was to review the benefits of producing milk and cheese under this system in terms of bioactivity and the health benefits of their consumption in model animals. To conduct this review, we particularly considered the experiments that our research group carried out along the last fifteen years at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán in Mexico. Firstly, we examined the forages consumed by goats on the rangelands in terms of plant bioactive compound occurrence and their concentration. Further, goat milk and cheese coming from (1) grazing animals, (2) animals managed indoors, and from (3) animals managed indoor supplemented with rich plant bioactive compounds, were analyzed. Milk was discussed to modulate the negative effects of high-fat diets in mice. Forages consumed by goats on the rangelands showed a close correlation between antioxidant activity assessed by the DPPH+ radical with total flavonoid and total polyphenol contents (TPC). Milk concentration of PUFA, MUFA, and n-3 fatty acids from grazing goats (4.7%, 25.2%, and 0.94% of FAME) was higher than milk from goats fed indoor diets (ID). Similar results were shown in cheese. TPC was higher in cheese manufactured with milk from grazing goats (300 mg of GAE/kg of cheese) when compared to cheese from milk goats fed ID (60 mg of GAE/of cheese). Acacia pods are a semiarid rangeland feed resource that transfers pro-healthy activity, inhibited in vitro lipid peroxidation (inhibition of TBARS formation) and diminished the damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, in vivo assessment revealed that Acacia species increased free radical scavenging (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and anti-inflammatory activity. The results highlight that grazing/browsing practices are superior to indoor feeding in order to promote the transference of bioactive compounds from vegetation to animal tissue, and finally to animal products. Grazing management represents a better option than indoor feeding to enhance bioactivity of milk and cheese. Supplementation with rich-bioactive compound forages increased total polyphenol, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonoid concentrations in milk and cheese. The consumption of goat milk prevents obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, and hepatic steatosis while on a high-fat diet induced obesity in mice.
Free full text: Read More