Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5113: Frequent Epigenetic Inactivation of DIRAS-1 and DIRAS-2 Contributes to Chemo-Resistance in Gliomas
Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers13205113
Markus J. Riemenschneider
We previously reported that DIRAS-3 is frequently inactivated in oligodendrogliomas due to promoter hypermethylation and loss of the chromosomal arm 1p. DIRAS-3 inactivation was associated with better overall survival. Consequently, we now investigated regulation and function of its family members DIRAS-1 and DIRAS-2. We found that DIRAS-1 was strongly downregulated in 65% and DIRAS-2 in 100% of analyzed glioma samples compared to non-neoplastic brain tissue (NNB). Moreover, a significant down-regulation of DIRAS-1 and -2 was detected in glioma data obtained from the TCGA database. Mutational analyses did not reveal any inactivating mutations in the DIRAS-1 and -2 coding regions. Analysis of the DIRAS-1 and -2 promoter methylation status showed significantly higher methylation in IDH-mutant astrocytic and IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted oligodendroglial tumors compared to NNB. Treatment of U251MG and Hs683 glioblastoma cells lines with 5-azacytidine led to significant re-expression of DIRAS-1 and -2. For IDH-wild-type primary gliomas, however, we did not observe significantly elevated DIRAS-1 and -2 promoter methylation levels, but still detected strong downregulation of both DIRAS family members. Additional analyses revealed that DIRAS-1 and -2 expression was also regulated by histone modifications. We observed a shift towards promoter heterochromatinization for DIRAS-1 and less promoter euchromatinization for DIRAS-2 in IDH-wild-type glioblastomas compared to controls. Treatment of the two glioblastoma cell lines with a histone deacetylase inhibitor led to significant re-expression of DIRAS-1 and -2. Functionally, overexpression of DIRAS-1 and -2 in glioblastoma cells translated into significantly higher sensitivity to lomustine treatment. Analyses of DNA damage markers revealed that DIRAS-1 and -2 may play a role in p53-dependent response to alkylating chemotherapy.
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