Energies, Vol. 14, Pages 6567: Evaluation of Surfactant Mixture for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Foamed Acid in Carbonate Matrix Acidizing
Energies doi: 10.3390/en14206567
The effectiveness of matrix acidizing using CO2 foamed acid is dependent on the duration of foam stability. This paper presents a supercritical CO2 foamed acid with a surfactant mixture to improve the foam stability in carbonate matrix acidizing. The experimental apparatus was developed to conduct foam-stability and wormhole-propagation tests under high-pressure and high-temperature (HPHT) conditions. The foam decay times of five types of surfactants were measured under atmospheric conditions. Trimax (blend of cocamidopropyl betaine, disodium cocoamphodiacetate, and amine oxide) and Aromox C/12W (coco bis-(2-hydroxyethyl) amine oxide) had a high foam decay time. The surfactant mixture was prepared using these two surfactants. The foam stability tests of the surfactant mixture were performed according to the HCl concentration, surfactant mixing ratio, and injection rate of HCl under HPHT conditions. As a result, the foam stability could be improved by adding an HCl concentration of 20% to the surfactant mixture. Wormhole-propagation tests were performed using Indiana and Indonesian limestones. Because of the supercritical CO2 foamed acid injection, dominant wormholes were formed in all the core samples; thus, the absolute permeabilities significantly increased. The results of the scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and thin-section analyses revealed that the number of large pores with pore sizes of ≥0.5 mm increased by the injection of CO2 foamed acid. Therefore, the supercritical CO2 foamed acid with the surfactant mixture exhibited a high efficiency of matrix acidizing in carbonate reservoirs.
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