Polymers, Vol. 13, Pages 3502: A Comparison among Lignin Modification Methods on the Properties of Lignin–Phenol–Formaldehyde Resin as Wood Adhesive
Polymers doi: 10.3390/polym13203502
The research aim of this work is to determine the influence of lignin modification methods on lignin–phenol–formaldehyde (LPF) adhesive properties. Thus, glyoxal (G), phenol (P), ionic liquid (IL), and maleic anhydride (MA) were used to modify lignin. The modified lignins were used for phenol substitution (50 wt%) in phenol–formaldehyde adhesives. The prepared resins were then used for the preparation of wood particleboard. These LPF resins were characterized physicochemically, namely by using standard methods to determine gel time, solids content, density, and viscosity, thus the physicochemical properties of the LPF resins synthesized. The panels dimensional stability, formaldehyde emission, bending modulus, bending strength, and internal bond (IB) strength were also measured. MA-modified lignin showed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) the lowest temperature of curing than the resins with non-modified lignin and modified with IL, phenolared lignin, and glyoxal. LPF resins with lignin treated with maleic anhydride presented a shorter gel time, higher viscosity, and solids content than the resins with other lignin modifications. Equally, the particleboard panels prepared with LPF resins with maleic anhydride or with ionic liquid had the lowest formaldehyde emission and the highest mechanical strength among all the synthesized resins. The dimensional stability of all panels bonded with modified lignin LPF resins presented no difference of any significance.
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