Brain Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 1354: Relevance of CSF, Serum and Neuroimaging Markers in CNS and PNS Manifestation in COVID-19: A Systematic Review of Case Report and Case Series
Brain Sciences doi: 10.3390/brainsci11101354
Ashish K. Shrestha
Background: The data on neurological manifestations in COVID-19 patients has been rapidly increasing throughout the pandemic. However, data on CNS and PNS inflammatory disorders in COVID-19 with respect to CSF, serum and neuroimaging markers is still lacking. Methods: We screened all articles resulting from a search of PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus, using the keywords “SARS-CoV-2 and neurological complication”, “SARS-CoV-2 and CNS Complication” and “SARS-CoV-2 and PNS Complication” looking for transverse myelitis, vasculitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, acute hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalitis (AHNE), cytotoxic lesion of the corpus callosum (CLOCC) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), published between 1 December 2019 to 15 July 2021. Results: Of the included 106 CNS manifestations in our study, CNS inflammatory disorders included transverse myelitis (17, 14.7%), AHNE (12, 10.4%), ADEM (11, 9.5%), CLOCC/MERS (10, 8.6%) and vasculitis (4, 3.4%). Others were nonspecific encephalopathy, encephalitis, seizures and stroke. Most patients were &gt;50 years old (75, 70.8%) and male (64, 65.3%). Most (59, 63.4%) were severe cases of COVID-19 and 18 (18%) patients died. Of the included 94 PNS manifestations in our study, GBS (89, 92.7%) was the most common. Most of these patients were &gt;50 years old (73, 77.7%) and male (59, 64.1%). Most (62, 67.4%) were non-severe cases of COVID-19, and ten patients died. Conclusion: Our comprehensive review of the clinical and paraclinical findings in CNS and PNS manifestations of COVID-19 provide insights on the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 and its neurotropism. The higher frequency and severity of CNS manifestations should be noted by physicians for increased vigilance in particular COVID-19 cases.
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