IJGI, Vol. 10, Pages 699: The Integration of GPS/BDS Real-Time Kinematic Positioning and Visual–Inertial Odometry Based on Smartphones
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information doi: 10.3390/ijgi10100699
The real-time kinematic positioning technique (RTK) and visual–inertial odometry (VIO) are both promising positioning technologies. However, RTK degrades in GNSS-hostile areas, where global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals are reflected and blocked, while VIO is affected by long-term drift. The integration of RTK and VIO can improve the accuracy and robustness of positioning. In recent years, smartphones equipped with multiple sensors have become commodities and can provide measurements for integrating RTK and VIO. This paper verifies the feasibility of integrating RTK and VIO using smartphones, and we propose an improved algorithm to integrate RTK and VIO with better performance. We began by developing an Android smartphone application for data collection and then wrote a Python program to convert the data to a robot operating system (ROS) bag. Next, we established two ROS nodes to calculate the RTK results and accomplish the integration. Finally, we conducted experiments in urban areas to assess the integration of RTK and VIO based on smartphones. The results demonstrate that the integration improves the accuracy and robustness of positioning and that our improved algorithm reduces altitude deviation. Our work can aid navigation and positioning research, which is the reason why we open source the majority of the codes at our GitHub.
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