Remote Sensing, Vol. 13, Pages 4107: Numerical Study of Global ELF Electromagnetic Wave Propagation with Respect to Lithosphere–Atmosphere–Ionosphere Coupling
Remote Sensing doi: 10.3390/rs13204107
Before and after earthquakes, abnormal physical and chemical phenomena can be observed by gathering ground-based and satellite data and interpreted by the lithosphere–atmosphere–ionosphere coupling (LAIC) mechanism. In this study, we focused on the mechanism of LAIC electromagnetic radiation and investigated the seismic electromagnetic (EM) wave generated in the lithosphere by earthquakes and its global propagation process from the lithosphere through the atmosphere and into the bottom of ionosphere, in order to analyze the abnormal disturbance of ground-based and space-based observation results. First, analytic formulas of the electrokinetic effect were used to simulate the generation and propagation process of the seismic EM wave in the lithosphere, interpreted as the conversion process of the seismic wave and EM wave in porous media. Second, we constructed a three-dimensional Earth–ionosphere waveguide by applying the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm to model the global propagation process of the seismic EM wave into the atmosphere and cavity between the bottom of the ionosphere and the surface of the Earth. By combining the model of the electrokinetic effect in the lithosphere with the numerical model of the Earth–ionosphere waveguide in the atmosphere and ionosphere, we numerically simulated the global transmission process of extremely low-frequency (ELF: 3 Hz–3000 Hz) EM waves which are related to earthquakes. The propagation parameters of coseismic ELF EM waves with different duration times and center frequencies were analyzed and summarized. The simulation results demonstrate that the distribution characteristics of an electric field along longitude, latitude and altitude with time are periodic and the time interval during which an EM wave travels around the whole Earth is approximately 0.155 s when adopting the conductivity of the knee profile. We also compared the observation data with the simulation results and found that the attenuating trends of the ELF electric field are consistent. This proposed ELF EM wave propagation model of lithosphere–atmosphere–ionosphere coupling is very promising for the explanation of abnormal disturbances of ground-based and space-based observation results of ELF EM fields which are associated with earthquakes.
Free full text: Read More