Biomolecules, Vol. 12, Pages 23: Automatic Activity Arising in Cardiac Muscle Sleeves of the Pulmonary Vein

Biomolecules doi: 10.3390/biom12010023

Pierre Bredeloux
Come Pasqualin
Romain Bordy
Veronique Maupoil
Ian Findlay

Ectopic activity in the pulmonary vein cardiac muscle sleeves can both induce and maintain human atrial fibrillation. A central issue in any study of the pulmonary veins is their difference from the left atrial cardiac muscle. Here, we attempt to summarize the physiological phenomena underlying the occurrence of ectopic electrical activity in animal pulmonary veins. We emphasize that the activation of multiple signaling pathways influencing not only myocyte electrophysiology but also the means of excitation–contraction coupling may be required for the initiation of triggered or automatic activity. We also gather information regarding not only the large-scale structure of cardiac muscle sleeves but also recent studies suggesting that cellular heterogeneity may contribute to the generation of arrythmogenic phenomena and to the distinction between pulmonary vein and left atrial heart muscle.

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