Cells, Vol. 11, Pages 42: TNFα Mediates Inflammation-Induced Effects on PPARG Splicing in Adipose Tissue and Mesenchymal Precursor Cells

Cells doi: 10.3390/cells11010042

Simona Cataldi
Marianna Aprile
Daniela Melillo
Inès Mucel
Sophie Giorgetti-Peraldi
Mireille Cormont
Paola Italiani
Matthias Blüher
Jean-François Tanti
Alfredo Ciccodicola
Valerio Costa

Low-grade chronic inflammation and reduced differentiation capacity are hallmarks of hypertrophic adipose tissue (AT) and key contributors of insulin resistance. We identified PPARGΔ5 as a dominant-negative splicing isoform overexpressed in the AT of obese/diabetic patients able to impair adipocyte differentiation and PPARγ activity in hypertrophic adipocytes. Herein, we investigate the impact of macrophage-secreted pro-inflammatory factors on PPARG splicing, focusing on PPARGΔ5. We report that the epididymal AT of LPS-treated mice displays increased PpargΔ5/cPparg ratio and reduced expression of Pparg-regulated genes. Interestingly, pro-inflammatory factors secreted from murine and human pro-inflammatory macrophages enhance the PPARGΔ5/cPPARG ratio in exposed adipogenic precursors. TNFα is identified herein as factor able to alter PPARG splicing—increasing PPARGΔ5/cPPARG ratio—through PI3K/Akt signaling and SRp40 splicing factor. In line with in vitro data, TNFA expression is higher in the SAT of obese (vs. lean) patients and positively correlates with PPARGΔ5 levels. In conclusion, our results indicate that inflammatory factors secreted by metabolically-activated macrophages are potent stimuli that modulate the expression and splicing of PPARG. The resulting imbalance between canonical and dominant negative isoforms may crucially contribute to impair PPARγ activity in hypertrophic AT, exacerbating the defective adipogenic capacity of precursor cells.

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