IJMS, Vol. 23, Pages 198: The Effects of Separate and Combined Treatment of Male Rats with Type 2 Diabetes with Metformin and Orthosteric and Allosteric Agonists of Luteinizing Hormone Receptor on Steroidogenesis and Spermatogenesis

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms23010198

Andrey A. Bakhtyukov
Kira V. Derkach
Viktor N. Sorokoumov
Anna M. Stepochkina
Irina V. Romanova
Irina Yu. Morina
Irina O. Zakharova
Liubov V. Bayunova
Alexander O. Shpakov

In men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis are impaired. Metformin and the agonists of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin(hCG)-receptor (LH/hCG-R) (hCG, low-molecular-weight allosteric LH/hCG-R-agonists) can be used to restore them. The aim was to study effectiveness of separate and combined administration of metformin, hCG and 5-amino-N-tert-butyl-2-(methylsulfanyl)-4-(3-(nicotinamido)phenyl)thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxamide (TP3) on steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in male rats with T2DM. hCG (15 IU/rat/day) and TP3 (15 mg/kg/day) were injected in the last five days of five-week metformin treatment (120 mg/kg/day). Metformin improved testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis and restored LH/hCG-R-expression. Compared to control, in T2DM, hCG stimulated steroidogenesis and StAR-gene expression less effectively and, after five-day administration, reduced LH/hCG-R-expression, while TP3 effects changed weaker. In co-administration of metformin and LH/hCG-R-agonists, on the first day, stimulating effects of LH/hCG-R-agonists on testosterone levels and hCG-stimulated expression of StAR- and CYP17A1-genes were increased, but on the 3–5th day, they disappeared. This was due to reduced LH/hCG-R-gene expression and increased aromatase-catalyzed estradiol production. With co-administration, LH/hCG-R-agonists did not contribute to improving spermatogenesis, induced by metformin. Thus, in T2DM, metformin and LH/hCG-R-agonists restore steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, with metformin being more effective in restoring spermatogenesis, and their co-administration improves LH/hCG-R-agonist-stimulating testicular steroidogenesis in acute but not chronic administration.

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