Applied Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 226: Battery Sizing for Mild P2 HEVs Considering the Battery Pack Thermal Limitations
Applied Sciences doi: 10.3390/app12010226
Small capacity and passively cooled battery packs are widely used in mild hybrid electric vehicles (MHEV). In this regard, continuous usage of electric traction could cause thermal runaway of the battery, reducing its life and increasing the risk of fire incidence. Hence, thermal limitations on the battery could be implemented in a supervisory controller to avoid such risks. A vast literature on the topic shows that the problem of battery thermal runaway is solved by applying active cooling or by implementing penalty factors on electric energy utilization for large capacity battery packs. However, they do not address the problem in the case of passive cooled, small capacity battery packs. In this paper, an experimentally validated electro-thermal model of the battery pack is integrated with the hybrid electric vehicle simulator. A supervisory controller using the equivalent consumption minimization strategy with, and without, consideration of thermal limitations are discussed. The results of a simulation of an MHEV with a 0.9 kWh battery pack showed that the thermal limitations of the battery pack caused a 2&ndash;3% fuel consumption increase compared to the case without such limitations; however, the limitations led to battery temperatures as high as 180 &deg;C. The same simulation showed that the adoption of a 1.8 kWh battery pack led to a fuel consumption reduction of 8&ndash;13% without thermal implications.
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