IJMS, Vol. 23, Pages 262: Pros and Cons of Pharmacological Manipulation of cGMP-PDEs in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms23010262

Patrizia Di Iorio
Maurizio Ronci
Patricia Giuliani
Francesco Caciagli
Renata Ciccarelli
Vanni Caruso
Sarah Beggiato
Mariachiara Zuccarini

The cyclic nucleotides, cAMP and cGMP, are ubiquitous second messengers responsible for translating extracellular signals to intracellular biological responses in both normal and tumor cells. When these signals are aberrant or missing, cells may undergo neoplastic transformation or become resistant to chemotherapy. cGMP-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are attracting tremendous interest as drug targets for many diseases, including cancer, where they regulate cell growth, apoptosis and sensitization to radio- and chemotherapy. In breast cancer, PDE5 inhibition is associated with increased intracellular cGMP levels, which is responsible for the phosphorylation of PKG and other downstream molecules involved in cell proliferation or apoptosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the most relevant studies regarding the controversial role of PDE inhibitors as off-label adjuvants in cancer therapy.

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