Applied Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 255: Estimation of Tibiofemoral and Patellofemoral Joint Forces during Squatting and Kneeling

Applied Sciences doi: 10.3390/app12010255

Ulrich Glitsch
Kai Heinrich
Rolf Peter Ellegast

This study examined the differences of knee joint forces between lowering to, or rising from squat, and typical final postures of squatting and kneeling. A biomechanical model of the lower limb was configured considering large knee flexion angles, multiple floor contact points, and the soft tissue contact between the thigh and calf. Inverse dynamics were used to determine muscle and compressive joint forces in the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. Data were obtained from a group of 13 male subjects by means of 3D motion capturing, two force plates, a pressure-sensitive pad, and electromyography. During lowering into the kneeling/squatting positions and rising from them, the model exhibited the anticipated high maximum forces of 2.6 ± 0.39 body weight (BW) and 3.4 ± 0.56 BW in the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. Upon attainment of the static terminal squatting and kneeling positions, the forces fell considerably, remaining within a range of between 0.5 and 0.7 BW for the tibiofemoral joint and 0.9 to 1.1 BW for the patellofemoral joint. The differences of the knee joint forces between the final postures of squatting and kneeling remained on average below 0.25 BW and were significant only for the tibiofemoral joint force.

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