We observed the characteristics, complications, and prognosis of patients with cardiovascular disease during the COVID-19 pandemic and compared them to the same period last year. We observed that the number of cardiac surgery patients significantly decreased compared to last year, and the proportion of diseases was significantly different. The proportion of patients with aortic dissection significantly increased compared to last year, and patients with valvular heart disease significantly decreased compared to last year, while other diseases were similar in proportion, that may be related to the willingness of patients to seek medical care during the COVID-19 pandemic period.
By analyzing the baseline, biochemical, and cardiac function indexes in the two groups, comparing this year to the same period last year, the proportion of patients, from Shaanxi Province, emergency admission, severe patients, EuroSCORE score and Pro-BNP significantly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, Family company during the COVID-19 pandemic period were significantly lower than those in the same period last year.
Further, by analyzing indexes of postoperative complications and prognostic, we observed that compared to the same period last year, Ventilator assistance time in days, length of stay in the ICU in days and length of stay in the hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic period were significantly higher than those in the same period last year. Infected patients, atelectasis, pulmonary edema, gastrointestinal dysfunction, atrial arrhythmia, secondary tracheal intubation, acute renal injury, coagulation disorders, total mediastinal drainage and six months mortality rate during the COVID-19 pandemic period were significantly higher than those in the same period last year. Based on the severity of EuroSCORE, patients with EuroSCORE > 9 score during the COVID-19 pandemic period were significantly higher than those in the same period last year. Furthermore, patients with EuroSCORE 7–9 score during the COVID-19 pandemic period were significantly reduced compared to those in the same period last year. Survival analysis curve further demonstrated that it had an impact on the deaths of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Through ROC analysis of the death factors of patients, it was concluded that Family company affected the death of patients.
In this study, we found that compared with the same period of last year, patients with cardiac surgery were more serious, the number of patients with emergency and emergency surgery increased, postoperative complications significantly increased, and prognosis was poor.
Many studies have shown that acute cardiovascular disease increases within hours to days after psychological triggers, including anger, depression, anxiety, and stress [5,6,7,8,9,10]. In this study, Family company during the COVID-19 pandemic period was significantly lower than those in the same period last year. So we guess: during the COVID-19 pandemic period, Lack of family company made patients psychological change, Many studies also have shown the daily increase in COVID-19 patients and patients who die have made people anxious, depressed and experience great pressure [11,12,13], especially in patients with cardiovascular disease, where a series of methods to relieve bad emotions, such as anxiety, followed, such as smoking, drinking, overeating, and loss of temper [14,15,16,17]. As a result of the progress and deterioration of the disease, the lack of timely treatment and changes in the attitude of seeking medical treatment, if the condition is not serious, patients do not go to the hospital to see a doctor [18, 19], which may affect the occurrence of complications and prognosis in patients with cardiac surgery.
Therefore, during future outbreaks of the epidemic, it is necessary to establish a fast track as soon as possible, not only in terms of the hospital but also in terms of the patient’s time and methods to reach the hospital . It is important to establish a cardiovascular disease database and to regularly follow-up with patients to urge them to seek medical treatment in time and develop decompression and good eating habits during the outbreak, family members of patients who are quarantined in situ due to the COVID-19 pandemic should actively contact their family members and entrust their friends to accompany the patients to reduce their anxiety, in order to reduce the occurrence of acute cardiovascular events and postoperative complications during the epidemic and improve the survival rate. This study has few cases, short follow-up time, is a single-center study, and no direct study on the relationship between stress and prognosis of patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery was performed. Further analysis of possible influencing factors may provide a theoretical basis for what measures we take to benefit patients in the event of major public health events.
Finally, seasonal effects due to daylight savings time have been shown to increase the risk of CVD events (32), and we cannot rule out the potential influence of seasonality on our results. However, confounding is of minimal concern given the short event windows chosen for the present analysis.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.