Afifi TO, MacMillan HL, Boyle M, Taillieu T, Cheung K, Sareen J. Child abuse and mental disorders in Canada. CMAJ. 2014;186(9):E324–E32.
Witt A, Brown RC, Plener PL, Brähler E, Fegert JM. Child maltreatment in Germany: prevalence rates in the general population. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2017;11(1):1-9.
Racine N, Plamondon A, McDonald S, Tough S, Madigan S. The consistency of maternal childhood abuse reporting in pregnancy and the postpartum period. J Womens Health. 2020;29(4):561–9.
Seng JS, D’Andrea W, Ford JD. Complex mental health sequelae of psychological trauma among women in prenatal care. Psychol Trauma. 2014;6(1):41.
Sørbø MF, Grimstad H, Bjørngaard JH, Schei B, Lukasse M. Prevalence of sexual, physical and emotional abuse in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study. BMC Public Health. 2013;13(1):1–11.
Berthelot N, Lemieux R, Garon-Bissonnette J, Muzik M. Prenatal Attachment, Parental Confidence, and Mental Health in Expecting Parents: The Role of Childhood Trauma. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2020;65(1):85–95.
Li Y, Long Z, Cao D, Cao F. Maternal history of child maltreatment and maternal depression risk in the perinatal period: A longitudinal study. Child Abuse Negl. 2017;63:192–201.
McDonnell CG, Valentino K. Intergenerational effects of childhood trauma: Evaluating pathways among maternal ACEs, perinatal depressive symptoms, and infant outcomes. Child Maltreat. 2016;21(4):317–26.
Muzik M, McGinnis EW, Bocknek E, Morelen D, Rosenblum KL, Liberzon I, et al. PTSD symptoms across pregnancy and early postpartum among women with lifetime PTSD diagnosis. Depress Anxiety. 2016;33(7):584–91.
Racine N, Devereaux C, Cooke JE, Eirich R, Zhu J, Madigan S. Adverse childhood experiences and maternal anxiety and depression: a meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry. 2021;21(1):28.
Choi KW, Sikkema KJ. Childhood maltreatment and perinatal mood and anxiety disorders: A systematic review. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2016;17(5):427–53.
Meltzer-Brody S, Larsen J, Petersen L, Guintivano J, Florio AD, Miller W, et al. Adverse life events increase risk for postpartum psychiatric episodes: A population-based epidemiologic study. Depress Anxiety. 2018;35(2):160–7.
Briere J, Kaltman S, Green BL. Accumulated childhood trauma and symptom complexity. J Trauma Stress. 2008;21(2):223–6.
Cloitre M, Stolbach BC, Herman JL, van der Kolk B, Pynoos R, Wang J, et al. A developmental approach to complex PTSD: childhood and adult cumulative trauma as predictors of symptom complexity. J Trauma Stress. 2009;22(5):399–408.
Steine IM, Winje D, Krystal JH, Bjorvatn B, Milde AM, Grønli J, et al. Cumulative childhood maltreatment and its dose-response relation with adult symptomatology: Findings in a sample of adult survivors of sexual abuse. Child Abuse Negl. 2017;65:99–111.
Berthelot N, Garon-Bissonnette J, Jomphe V, Doucet-Beaupré H, Bureau A, Maziade M. Childhood trauma may increase the risk of psychosis and mood disorder in genetically high-risk children and adolescents by enhancing the accumulation of risk indicators. Schizophr Bull Open. Submitted. .
Hodges M, Godbout N, Briere J, Lanktree C, Gilbert A, Kletzka NT. Cumulative trauma and symptom complexity in children: A path analysis. Child Abuse Negl. 2013;37(11):891–8.
Putnam KT, Harris WW, Putnam FW. Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology. J Trauma Stress. 2013;26(4):435–42.
Bigras N, Godbout N, Hébert M, Sabourin S. Cumulative adverse childhood experiences and sexual satisfaction in sex therapy patients: What role for symptom complexity? J Sex Med. 2017;14(3):444–54.
Anastas JW, Payne NA, Ghuman SJ. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Complex Post-traumatic Stress in Pregnant Teens: A Pilot Study. Matern Child Health J. 2021;25(5):741–50.
Coventry P, Meader N, Melton HA, Temple M, Dale H, Wright K, et al. Psychological and pharmacological interventions for PTSD and comorbid mental health problems following complex traumatic events: systematic review and component network meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2020.
Karatzias T, Murphy P, Cloitre M, Bisson J, Roberts N, Shevlin M, et al. Psychological interventions for ICD-11 complex PTSD symptoms: systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol Med. 2019;49(11):1761–75.
Saris I, Aghajani M, van der Werff S, Van der Wee N, Penninx B. Social functioning in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2017;136(4):352–61.
Lacharité C, Deshaulniers R, St-Laurent D. Le questionnaire des traumatismes vécus en enfance. Traduction française du Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. 2002.
Bernstein DP, Stein JA, Newcomb MD, Walker E, Pogge D, Ahluvalia T, et al. Development and validation of a brief screening version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Child Abuse Negl. 2003;27(2):169–90.
Walker EA, Unutzer J, Rutter C, Gelfand A, Saunders K, VonKorff M, et al. Costs of health care use by women HMO members with a history of childhood abuse and neglect. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999;56(7):609–13.
Ashbaugh AR, Houle-Johnson S, Herbert C, El-Hage W, Brunet A. Psychometric Validation of the English and French Versions of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). PLoS One. 2016;11(10):e0161645.
Wilkins KC, Lang AJ, Norman SB. Synthesis of the psychometric properties of the PTSD checklist (PCL) military, civilian, and specific versions. Depress Anxiety. 2011;28(7):596–606.
Bovin MJ, Marx BP, Weathers FW, Gallagher MW, Rodriguez P, Schnurr PP, et al. Psychometric properties of the PTSD Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–Fifth Edition (PCL-5) in veterans. Psychol Assess. 2016;28(11):1379–91.
Gravel R, Connolly D, Bédard M. Enquête sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes : santé mentale et bien-être. Statistics Canada; 2002.
Kessler RC, Andrews G, Colpe LJ, Hiripi E, Mroczek DK, Normand SLT, et al. Short screening scales to monitor population prevalences and trends in non-specific psychological distress. Psychol Med. 2002;32(6):959–76.
Andrews G, Slade T. Interpreting scores on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 2001;25(6):494–7.
Spies G, Stein DJ, Roos A, Faure SC, Mostert J, Seedat S, et al. Validity of the Kessler 10 (K-10) in detecting DSM-IV defined mood and anxiety disorders among pregnant women. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2009;12(2):69–74.
Spielberger CD. STAXI-2: State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2. Professional Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources; 1999.
Gamache D, Savard C, Leclerc P, Côté A. Introducing a short self-report for the assessment of DSM–5 level of personality functioning for personality disorders: The Self and Interpersonal Functioning Scale. Personal Disord. 2019;10(5):438–47.
Gamache D, Savard C, Leclerc P, Payant M, Berthelot N, Côté A, et al. A Proposed Classification of ICD-11 Severity Degrees of Personality Pathology Using the Self and Interpersonal Functioning Scale. Front. Psychiatry. 2021;12(292).
Waugh MH, McClain CM, Mariotti EC, Mulay AL, DeVore EN, Lenger KA, et al. Comparative content analysis of self-report scales for level of personality functioning. J Pers Assess. 2021;103(2):161–73.
Gamache D, Savard C, Lemieux R, Berthelot N. Impact of level of personality pathology on affective, behavioral, and thought problems in pregnant women during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Personal Disord. 2021.
Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using Multivariate Statistics. 6th ed. Boston, MA: Pearson; 2013.
Canada S. Education Highlight Tables 2016 Census. 2016.
Québec Idlsd. Revenu médian à l’échelle du Québec : Revenu médian, revenu total, ménages, Québec, 1996-2018. In: Québec Gd, editor. 2018.
Stoltenborgh M, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, Alink LR, van IJzendoorn MH. The prevalence of child maltreatment across the globe: Review of a series of meta-analyses. Child Abuse Rev. 2015;24(1):37–50.
Skjothaug T, Smith L, Wentzel-Larsen T, Moe V. Prospective fathers’ adverse childhood experiences, pregnancy-related anxiety, and depression during pregnancy. Infant Ment Health J. 2015;36(1):104–13.
Chamberlain C, Gee G, Harfield S, Campbell S, Brennan S, Clark Y, et al. Parenting after a history of childhood maltreatment: A scoping review and map of evidence in the perinatal period. PLoS One. 2019;14(3):e0213460-e.
Savage L-É, Tarabulsy GM, Pearson J, Collin-Vézina D, Gagné L-M. Maternal history of childhood maltreatment and later parenting behavior: A meta-analysis. Dev Psychopathol. 2019;31(1):9–21.
Ijzendoorn MH, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, Coughlan B, Reijman S. Annual research review: Umbrella synthesis of meta-analyses on child maltreatment antecedents and interventions: Differential susceptibility perspective on risk and resilience. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2020;61(3):272–90.
St-Laurent D, Dubois-Comtois K, Milot T, Cantinotti M. Intergenerational continuity/discontinuity of child maltreatment among low-income mother–child dyads: The roles of childhood maltreatment characteristics, maternal psychological functioning, and family ecology. Dev Psychopathol. 2019;31(1):189–202.
Nesari M, Olson JK, Vandermeer B, Slater L, Olson DM. Does a maternal history of abuse before pregnancy affect pregnancy outcomes? A systematic review with meta-analysis. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018;18(1):404.
Bouvette-Turcot A-A, Fleming AS, Unternaehrer E, Gonzalez A, Atkinson L, Gaudreau H, et al. Maternal symptoms of depression and sensitivity mediate the relation between maternal history of early adversity and her child temperament: The inheritance of circumstance. Dev Psychopathol. 2019.
Garon-Bissonnette J, Duguay G, Lemieux R, Dubois-Comtois K, Berthelot N. Maternal childhood abuse and neglect predicts offspring development in early childhood: The roles of reflective functioning and child sex. Child Abuse Negl. 2021.
Plant DT, Jones FW, Pariante CM, Pawlby S. Association between maternal childhood trauma and offspring childhood psychopathology: mediation analysis from the ALSPAC cohort. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. 2017;211(3):144–50.
Lê-Scherban F, Wang X, Boyle-Steed KH, Pachter LM. Intergenerational Associations of Parent Adverse Childhood Experiences and Child Health Outcomes. Pediatrics. 2018;141(6).
Berthelot N, Ensink K, Bernazzani O, Normandin L, Luyten P, Fonagy P. Intergenerational transmission of attachment in abused and neglected mothers: the role of trauma-specific reflective functioning. Infant Ment Health J. 2015;36(2):200–12.
Yampolsky L, Lev-Wiesel R, Ben-Zion IZ. Child sexual abuse: is it a risk factor for pregnancy? J Adv Nurs. 2010;66(9):2025–37.
Alto ME, Warmingham JM, Handley ED, Rogosch F, Cicchetti D, Toth SL. Developmental pathways from maternal history of childhood maltreatment and maternal depression to toddler attachment and early childhood behavioral outcomes. Attach Hum Dev. 2021;23(3):328–49.
Berthelot N, Garon-Bissonnette J, Lemieux R, Drouin-Maziade C, Maziade M. Paucity of intervention research in childhood maltreatment contrasts with the long known relation with mental health disorders: Is trauma research translational enough? Ment Health Prev. 2020;19:200189.
Berthelot N, Lemieux R, Lacharité C. Development of a prenatal program for adults with personal histories of childhood abuse or neglect: a Delphi consensus consultation study. Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can. 2018;38(11):393–403.
Lieberman AF, Diaz MA, Castro G, Oliver BG. Make Room for Baby: Perinatal Child-Parent Psychotherapy to Repair Rrauma and Promote Attachment. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2020.
Seng J, Sperlich M, Rowe H, Cameron H, Harris A, Rauch SA, et al. The Survivor Moms’ Companion: Open pilot of a posttraumatic stress specific psychoeducation program for pregnant survivors of childhood maltreatment and sexual trauma. IJCB. 2011;1(2):111–20.
Seng JS, Sperlich M, Low LK. Mental health, demographic, and risk behavior profiles of pregnant survivors of childhood and adult abuse. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2008;53(6):511–21.
SAMHSA. SAMHSA’s Concept of Trauma and Guidance for a Trauma-Informed Approach. In: Initiative TaJS, editor.: Department of Health & Human Services USA; 2014.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.