• 1.

    Pozzilli P, Guglielmi C, Caprio S, Buzzetti R. Obesity, autoimmunity, and double diabetes in youth. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(Suppl2):S166–70. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc11-s213.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 2.

    Libman IM, Pietropaolo M, Arslanian SA, LaPorte RE, Becker DJ. Changing prevalence of overweight children and adolescents at onset of insulin-treated diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(10):2871–5. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.26.10.2871.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 3.

    Cleland SJ, Fisher BM, Colhoun HM, Sattar N, Petrie JR. Insulin resistance in type 1 diabetes: what is “double diabetes” and what are the risks? Diabetologia. 2013;56(7):1462–70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-013-2904-2.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 4.

    Giuffrida FM, Bulcão C, Cobas RA, Negrato CA, Gomes MB, Dib SA. Brazilian Type 1 Diabetes Study Group (BrazDiab1SG). Double-diabetes in a real-world sample of 2711 individuals: associated with insulin treatment or part of the heterogeneity of type 1 diabetes? Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2016;22(8):28. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-016-0143-7 (eCollection 2016).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 5.

    Teupe B, Bergis K. Epidemiological evidence for “double diabetes.” Lancet. 1991;337(8737):361–2. https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(91)90988-2.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 6.

    Purnell JQ, Hokanson JE, Marcovina SM, Steffes MW, Cleary PA, Brunzell JD. Effect of excessive weight gain with intensive therapy of type 1 diabetes on lipid levels and blood pressure: results from the DCCT Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. JAMA. 1998;280(2):140–6. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.280.2.140.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 7.

    Thorn LM, Forsblom C, Wadén J, Saraheimo M, Tolonen N, Hietala K, Groop PH. Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study Group Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, mortality, and progression of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:950–2. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc08-2022 (Epub 2009 Feb 5).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 8.

    Barros BSV, Monteiro FC, Terra C, Gomes MB. Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its associated factors in individuals with type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study in a tertiary care center in Brazil. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2021;13(1):33. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-021-00649-0.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 9.

    Belete R, Ataro Z, Abdu A, Sheleme M. Global prevalence of metabolic Syndrome among patients with type I diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2021;13(1):25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-021-00641-8.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 10.

    Chaturvedi N, Sjoelie AK, Porta M, Aldington SJ, Fuller JH, Songini M, Kohner EM. Markers of insulin resistance are strong risk factors for retinopathy incidence in type 1 diabetes EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study. Diabetes Care. 2001;24:284–9. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.24.2.284.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 11.

    The DCCT Research Group. Weight gain associated with intensive therapy in the diabetes control and complications trial. Diabetes Care. 1998;11(7):567–73. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.11.7.567.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 12.

    Fröhlich-Reiterer EE, Rosenbauer J, Bechtold-Dalla Pozza S, Hofer SE, Schober E, Holl RW, et al. Predictors of increasing BMI during the course of diabetes in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: data from the German/Austrian DPV multicentre survey. Arch Dis Child. 2014;99(8):738–43. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2013-304237.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 13.

    Minges KE, Whittemore R, Weinzimer SA, Irwin ML, Redeker NS, Grey M. Correlates of overweight and obesity in 5529 adolescents with type 1 diabetes: The T1D Exchange Clinic Registry. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2017;126:68–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2017.01.012.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 14.

    Gomes MB, Negrato CA. Adherence to insulin therapeutic regimens in patients with type 1 diabetes. A nationwide survey in Brazil. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2016;120:47–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2016.07.011.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 15.

    World Health Organization. Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health/topics at a glance/adolescent health/Health for the world’s adolescents. (www.who.int; apps.who.int). Accessed in September 2019.

  • 16.

    IBGE Censo 2010. [Acessed in January,12,2020]. http://www.censo2010.ibge.gov.br.

  • 17.

    Davison KA, Negrato CA, Cobas R, Matheus A, Tannus L, Palma CS et al. Brazilian Type 1 Diabetes Study Group (BrazDiab1SG). Relationship between adherence to diet, glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 1 diabetes: a nationwide survey in Brazil. Nutr J.2014; 13:19. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-13-19

  • 18.

    American Diabetes Association. Clinical practice recommendations. Diabetes Care. 2021;44:S180-199.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 19.

    Friedwald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimations of serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol without use of preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972;18(6):499–502 (PMID: 4337382).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 20.

    World Health Organization. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a World Health Organization Consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000. p256. WHO Obesity Technical Report Series, n.284. PMID: 11234459

  • 21.

    Flynn JT, Kaelber DC, Baker-Smith CM, Blowey D, Carroll AE, Daniels SR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for screening and management of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2017;140(3): e20171904. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-1904.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 22.

    Gomes MB, de Mattos Matheus AS, Calliari LE, Luescher JL, Manna TD, Savoldelli RD, et al. Economic status and clinical care in young type 1 diabetes patients: a nationwide multicenter study in Brazil. Acta Diabetol. 2013;50(5):743–52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00592-012-0404-3.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 23.

    Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Censo 2000 [accessed in 2008 Aug.]. http:/www.ibge.gov.br/censo

  • 24.

    Malerbi DA, Franco LJ. Multicenter study of the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in the urban Brazilian population aged 30–69 yr. The Brazilian Cooperative Group on the Study of Diabetes Prevalence. Diabetes Care. 1992;15(11):1509–16. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.15.11.1509.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 25.

    ABEP. Brazilian Economic classification criteria, 2010 [accessed in 2008 aug]. http://www.abep.org/novo/Content.aspx?SectionID=84

  • 26.

    Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, Zhang YL, Castro AF 3rd, Feldman HI, et al. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150(9):604–12. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-150-9-200905050-00006.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 27.

    Schwartz GJ, Work DF. Measurement and estimation of GFR in children and adolescents. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4(11):1832–43. https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.01640309.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 28.

    Webster AC, Nagler EV, Morton RL, Masson P. Chronic kidney disease. Lancet. 2017;389(10075):1238–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)32064-5.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 29.

    Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD Work Group. KDIGO 2012 Clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. In. Kidney.2013: Int Suppl 1–150.

  • 30.

    Wilkinson CP, Ferris FL 3rd, Klein RE, Lee PP, Agardh CD, Davis M, et al. Proposed international clinical diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema disease severity scales. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(9):1677–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0161-6420(03)00475-5.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 31.

    Alberti KGMM, Zimmet P, Shaw J, George K, Alberti MM, Aschner P, et al. Metabolic syndrome-a new world-wide definition. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Diabetic Med. 2006;23(5):469–80. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2006.01858.x.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 32.

    IDF consensus definition of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents .https://www.idf.org/, Accessed Jan 2020.

  • 33.

    Bell RA, Mayer-Davis EJ, Beyer JW, D’Agostino RB Jr, Lawrence JM, Linder B, Liu LL, Marcovina SM, Rodriguez BL, Williams D, Dabelea D, SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study Group. Diabetes in non-Hispanic white youth: prevalence, incidence, and clinical characteristics: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(Suppl 2):S102–11. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc09-S202.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 34.

    Sistema de Vigilância Nutricional e Alimentar. Available from https://sisaps.saude.gov.br/sisvan/relatoriopublico/index. Acessed Feb 2021

  • 35.

    NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC). Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults. Lancet. 2017;390(10113):2627–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32129-3.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 36.

    van Vliet M, Van der Heyden JC, Diamant M, Von Rosenstiel IA, Schindhelm RK, Aanstoot HJ, et al. Overweight is highly prevalent in children with type 1 diabetes and associates with cardiometabolic risk. J Pediatr. 2010;156(6):923–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.12.017.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 37.

    Schwab KO, Doerfer J, Marg W, Schober E, Holl RW, DPV Science Initiative and the Competence Network Diabetes mellitus. Characterization of 33 488 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes based on the gender-specific increase of cardiovascular risk factors. Pediatr Diabetes. 2010;11(5):357–63. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-5448.2010.00665.x.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 38.

    Flechtner-Mors M, Schwab KO, Fröhlich-Reiterer EE, Kapellen TM, Meissner T, Rosenbauer J, et al. Overweight and obesity based on four reference systems in 18,382 paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes from Germany and Austria. J Diabetes Res. 2015;2015: 370753. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/370753.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 39.

    Liu LL, Lawrence JM, Davis C, Liese AD, Pettitt DJ, Pihoker C, et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in youth with diabetes in USA: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Pediatr Diabetes. 2010;11(1):4–11. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-5448.2009.00519.x.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 40.

    Gomes MB, Gabrielli AB, Santos DC, Pizarro MH, Barros BSV, Negrato CA, et al. Self-reported color-race and genomic ancestry in an admixed population: a contribution of a nationwide survey in patients with type 1 diabetes in Brazil. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2018;140:245–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2018.03.021 (Epub 2018 Mar 21).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 41.

    Alvarez MM, Vieira ACRE, Sichieri R, da Veiga GV. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and of its specific components among adolescents from Niterói City, Rio de Janeiro State. Brazil Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2011;55(2):164–70. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0004-27302011000200009.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 42.

    Davis TME, Bruce DG, Davis WA. Prevalence and prognostic implications of the metabolic syndrome in community-based patients with type 1 diabetes: The Fremantle Diabetes Study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007;78(3):412–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2007.06.007.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 43.

    de Melo LGN, Morales PH, Drummond KRG, Santos DC, Haas Pizarro M, Barros BSV, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for referable diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes: a nationwide study in Brazil. Acta Ophthalmol. 2018;96(8):e1032–3. https://doi.org/10.1111/aos.13760.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 44.

    Gomes MB, Pizarro MH, Muniz LH, Barros BSV, Melo LGN, Santos DC, et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in an admixed population of patients with type 1 diabetes. A multicenter study in Brazil. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020;170:108490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108490.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 45.

    Petitti DB, Imperatore G, Pall AL, Daniels SR, Dollan LM, Kershnar AK, Marcovina S, et al. Serum lipids and glucose control. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161(2):159–65. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.161.2.159.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 46.

    Özcan B, Delhanty PJD, Huisman M, Visser JA, Neggers SJ, van der Lely AJ. Overweight and obesity in type 1 diabetes is not associated with higher ghrelin concentrations. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2021;13(1):79. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-021-00699-4.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 47.

    Khan AS, McLoughney CR, Ahmed AB. The effect of metformin on blood glucose control in overweight patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2006;23(10):1079–84. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2006.01966.x.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 48.

    Jacobsen IB, Henriksen JE, Beck-Nielsen H. The effect of metformin in overweight patients with type 1 diabetes and poor metabolic control. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009;105(3):145–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-7843.2009.00380.x.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Rights and permissions

    Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

    Disclaimer:

    This article is autogenerated using RSS feeds and has not been created or edited by OA JF.

    Click here for Source link (https://www.biomedcentral.com/)