Fegert JM, Vitiello B, Plener PL, Clemens V. Challenges and burden of the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic for child and adolescent mental health: a narrative review to highlight clinical and research needs in the acute phase and the long return to normality. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2020;14:20.
Viner RM, Russell SJ, Croker H, Packer J, Ward J, Stansfield C, et al. School closure and management practices during coronavirus outbreaks including COVID-19: a rapid systematic review. Lancet Child Adolesc Heal. 2020;4(5):397–404.
Caffo E, Scandroglio F, Asta L. Debate: COVID-19 and psychological well-being of children and adolescents in Italy. Child Adolesc Ment Health. 2020;25(3):167–8.
Meherali S, Punjani N, Louie-Poon S, Abdul Rahim K, Das JK, Salam RA, et al. Mental health of children and adolescents amidst COVID-19 and past pandemics: a rapid systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073432.
Singh S, Roy D, Sinha K, Parveen S, Sharma G, Joshi G. Impact of COVID-19 and lockdown on mental health of children and adolescents: a narrative review with recommendations. Psychiatry Res. 2020;293:113429.
Mastorci F, Piaggi P, Doveri C, Trivellini G, Casu A, Pozzi M, et al. Health-related quality of life in Italian adolescents during Covid-19 outbreak. Front Pediatr. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-021-02861-x.
Luijten MAJ, van Muilekom MM, Teela L, Polderman TJC, Terwee CB, Zijlmans J, et al. The impact of lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic on mental and social health of children and adolescents. Qual LIFE Res. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-021-02861-x.
Ravens-Sieberer U, Kaman A, Erhart M, Devine J, Schlack R, Otto C. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on quality of life and mental health in children and adolescents in Germany. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-021-01726-5.
Newby JM, O’Moore K, Tang S, Christensen H, Faasse K. Acute mental health responses during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. PLoS ONE. 2020;15(7):e0236562.
Russell BS, Hutchison M, Tambling R, Tomkunas AJ, Horton AL. Initial challenges of caregiving during COVID-19: caregiver burden, mental health, and the parent-child relationship. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2020;51(5):671–82.
Li SH, Beames JR, Newby JM, Maston K, Christensen H, Werner-Seidler A. The impact of COVID-19 on the lives and mental health of Australian adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-021-01790-x.
Armitage R, Nellums LB. Considering inequalities in the school closure response to COVID-19. Lancet Global Health. 2020;8:644.
Brennan N, Beames JR, Kos A, Reily N, Connell C, Hall S, et al. Psychological Distress in Young People in Australia. Fifth Biennial Youth Mental Health Report: 2012–2020. Sydney, NSW; 2021.
Dray J, Bowman J, Freund M, Campbell E, Hodder RK, Lecathelinais C, et al. Mental health problems in a regional population of Australian adolescents: association with socio-demographic characteristics. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13034-016-0120-9.
Zubrick SR, Silburn S, Lawrence D, Mitrou F, Dalby RB, Blair EM, et al. The Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health survey: the social and emotional wellbeing of Aboriginal children and young people. Curtin University of Technology and the Telethon Institute for Child Health Research. Perth; 2005. https://research-repository.uwa.edu.au/en/publications/the-western-australian-aboriginal-child-health-survey-the-social-.
Arefadib N, Moore TG. Reporting the Health and Development of Children in Rural and Remote Australia. Centre for Community Child Health. Parkville, Vic; 2017. https://www.rch.org.au/ccch/research-projects/Reporting_the_Health_and_Development_of_Children_in_Rural_and_Remote_Australia/.
Lawrence D, Johnson SE, Hafekost J, de Haan KB, Sawyer MG, Ainley J, et al. The Mental Health of Children and Adolescents: Report on the second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. UWA Centre for Child Health Research. Perth; 2015. https://research-repository.uwa.edu.au/en/publications/the-mental-health-of-children-and-adolescents-report-on-the-secon.
Westrupp EM, Stokes MA, Fuller-Tyszkiewicz M, Berkowitz TS, Capic T, Khor S, et al. Subjective wellbeing in parents during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. J Psychosom Res. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2021.110482.
Lester L, Waters S, Cross D. The relationship between school connectedness and mental health during the transition to secondary school: a path analysis. Aust J Guid Couns. 2013;23(2):157–71.
Foody M, McGuire L, Kuldas S, Norman JO. Friendship quality and gender differences in association with cyberbullying involvement and psychological well-being. Front Psychol. 2019. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01723.
Spithoven AWM, Lodder GMA, Goossens L, Bijttebier P, Bastin M, Verhagen M, et al. Adolescents’ loneliness and depression associated with friendship experiences and well-being: a person-centered approach. J Youth Adolesc. 2017;46(2):429–41.
Mullane M, Thomas H, Epstein M, Mandzufas J, Mullan N, Whelan A, Lombardi K, Barrow T, Ang S, Leahy A, Cameron E, Lester L, Hartman M, McKenzie A, Mitrou F, Zubrick S, Coffin J, Cross D, Bowen A, Gething P. DETECT Schools Study Protocol: a prospective observational cohort surveillance study investigating the impact of COVID-19 in Western Australian schools. Front Public Health.2021. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.636921
Harris PA, Taylor R, Thielke R, Payne J, Gonzalez N, Conde JG. Research electronic data capture (REDCap)-a metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support. J Biomed Inform. 2009;42(2):377–81.
Stevens K. Valuation of the child health utility 9D index. Pharmacoeconomics. 2012;30(8):729–47.
Ratcliffe J, Stevens K, Flynn T, Brazier J, Sawyer M. An assessment of the construct validity of the CHU9D in the Australian adolescent general population. Qual life Res an Int J Qual life Asp Treat care Rehabil. 2012;21(4):717–25.
Le LK-D, Richards-Jones S, Chatterton ML, Engel L, Lawrence D, Stevenson C, et al. Australian adolescent population norms for the child health utility index 9D—results from the young minds matter survey. Qual Life Res. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-021-02864-8.
Hafekost J, Lawrence D, de Boterhoven Haan K, Johnson SE, Saw S, Buckingham WJ, et al. Methodology of Young Minds Matter: the second Australian child and adolescent survey of mental health and Wellbeing. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2016;50(9):866–75.
Smout MF. The factor structure and predictive validity of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) in children and adolescents. Aust Psychol. 2019;54(2):102–13.
Hajian-Tilaki K. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for medical diagnostic test evaluation. Casp J Intern Med. 2013;4(2):627–35.
Sawyer MG, Reece CE, Sawyer ACP, Johnson SE, Lawrence D. Has the prevalence of child and adolescent mental disorders in Australia changed between 1998 and 2013 to 2014? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018;57(5):343.
Chief psychiatrist’s targeted review into the treatment of Ms Kate Savage by Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. Perth: Office of the Chief Psychiatrist; 2020.
Haripersad YV, Kannegiesser-Bailey M, Morton K, Skeldon S, Shipton N, Edwards K, et al. Outbreak of anorexia nervosa admissions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Arch Dis Child. 2021;106(e15). https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32709684/.
Eisenberg N, Silver RC. Growing up in the shadow of terrorism: Youth in America after 9/11. Vol. 66, American Psychologist. American Psychological Association; 2011. p. 468–81.
Poppelaars ES, Klackl J, Scheepers DT, Mühlberger C, Jonas E. Reflecting on existential threats elicits self-reported negative affect but no physiological arousal. Front Psychol. 2020;11:962. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00962.
Folkman S, Moskowitz JT. Coping: pitfalls and promise. Annu Rev Psychol. 2004;55(1):745–74. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141456.
Mok K, Donovan R, Hocking B, Maher B, Lewis R, Pirkis J. Stimulating community action for suicide prevention: findings on the effectiveness of the Australian R U OK? Campaign Int J Ment Health Promot. 2016;18(4):213–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/14623730.2016.1209423.
Goodsell B, Lawrence D, Ainley J, Sawyer M, Zubrick S, Maratos J. Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Educational Outcomes: an analysis of educational outcomes from Young Minds Matter: the second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Perth: The University of Western Australia; 2017. https://research-repository.uwa.edu.au/en/publications/child-and-adolescent-mental-health-and-educational-outcomes-an-an.
Schmidt ME, Bagwell CL. The protective role of friendships in overtly and relationally victimized boys and girls. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly-Journal Dev Psychol. 2007;53(3):439–60.
Furber G, Segal L. The validity of the Child Health Utility instrument (CHU9D) as a routine outcome measure for use in child and adolescent mental health services. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2015;13(1):22.
Bonnor C, Shepherd B. Uneven Playing Field: The State of Australia’s Schools. Melbourne: Centre for Policy Development; 2016. https://cpd.org.au/2016/05/unevenplayingfield/.
Shaw T, Cross D, Thomas LT, Zubrick SR. Bias in student survey findings from active parental consent procedures. Br Educ Res J. 2015;41(2):229–43.
Productivity Commission. Mental Health. Canberra: Australian Government; 2020.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Census of population and housing—counts of aboriginal and torres strait Islander Australians. Australia: Australian Bureau of Statistics; 2016.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.