Single-factor investigation of the processing technology for the wine-processing of Rhizoma Coptidis
Investigation into the liquid absorption rate
Modern studies show that the following six alkaloids are mainly found in coptis chinensis, which are: Medicine stephania root alkali, hydrochloric acid Africa hydrochloric acid alkali, hydrochloric acid table berberine and hydrastine hydrochloric acid, hydrochloric acid, Martin, berberine hydrochloride (corresponding to peak in the chromatograph chart 2 ~ 7), but because of peak separation effect is good, and the area is larger, thus will peak respectively reference 1 ~ 7 as processing technology research, but because of these seven elements only berberine hydrochloride in standard material, Therefore, the chromatographic peak area of berberine hydrochloride was used as reference.
In the present study, 100 g of Rhizoma Coptidis was weighed, 500 ml of yellow wine (manufacturer: Chengdu Julong Biological Technology Co., LTD., raw materials and accessories: water, rice, caramel color; The alcohol is 10.0%vol; Total sugar: 15.0 g/L or less) was added, and the mixture was left to stand for one hour. The liquid was extracted, and the volume was measured (see Table 1). The results showed that the absorption rate of Rhizoma Coptidis was approximately 1 ml/g.
Investigation into the liquid absorption time
According to the 2015 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the procedures for the wine-processing of Rhizoma Coptidis are as follows: 100 g of Rhizoma Coptidis and 12.5 g of yellow wine (approximately 12.5 ml), and the amount of yellow wine should be far less than that of Rhizoma Coptidis. Therefore, in the present study, 100 g of Rhizoma Coptidis and 12.5 g of yellow wine were weighed and used. They were mixed well, and the absorption time was measured. The results revealed that the yellow wine can be completely absorbed in 3 min.
Investigation into the processing time
In the present study, 100 g of Rhizoma Coptidis and 12.5 g of yellow wine were weighed, mixed well, and stirred and fried at 80 °C and 150 °C. The elapsed time was recorded. The results showed that the herb had a well-processed appearance at 12 and 1.5 min, respectively.
Investigation into the type of yellow wine and the alcohol content
In the present study, 12.5 g of different types of yellow wine with varying alcohol contents were used. Each type of wine was mixed well with 100 g of Rhizoma Coptidis and fried at 115 °C for 7 min. The alkaloid content in each sample was then measured (see Table 2). The results revealed that the alkaloid content in the wine-processing of Rhizoma Coptidis processed using different types of wine with varying alcohol concentrations was similar.
The processing technology for the wine-processing of Rhizoma Coptidis designed by Box–Behnken
With the processing temperature, processing time, and moisture time as independent variables, seven characteristic peaks were measured to calculate the content percentages, using berberine hydrochloride as a reference. The sum of these seven characteristic peaks (Y) was used as the response value for the design. The experimental design and results are shown in Tables 3 and 4.
Model fit and variance analysis
The content of all processed products showed different degrees of decrease when compared with the original medicinal materials. However, since the active ingredients were alkaloids, the total content (%) was chosen as the evaluation index, with the aim of optimizing its maximum value. The obtained regression model equation is as follows: Y = 15.23 − 0.3026A + 0.0333B + 0.2334C − 0.2121AB + 0.1991AC − 0.4357BC + 0.3969A2 − 0.5237B2 − 0.2837C2, r2 = 0.8450. These results reveal that the goodness of fit of the model is good, and it can be used for the analysis and prediction of the processing technology. The processing temperature and processing time of B and C factors had no significant effect on the content of alkaloids. The analysis of variance revealed that within the test range, the influencing factors for the processing technology were as follows (in decreasing order of the magnitude of influence): moisture time, processing time, and processing temperature (see Table 5).
Optimization and prediction of the response surface
The Design-Expert 11 software was used to draw the response surface and a two-dimensional contour map of the moisture time (min), processing temperature (°C), and processing time (min) of the wine-processing of Rhizoma Coptidis.
With Y-max as the goal, the processing technology was optimized, and the results were as follows: A = 0, B = 125.792, and C = 5.828. Considering the actual situation of the instruments and equipment, the best process was adjusted to the following: A = 0, B = 125, and C = 6. This means that 100 g of Rhizoma Coptidis and 12.5 g of yellow wine should be weighed, mixed well, and stirred and fried at 125 °C for 6 min.
Using the optimal conditions, the value of Y1–Y7% and the value of Y are predicted as: Y1/% = 0.178, Y2% = 0.420,Y3% = 0.683,Y4% = 1.500,Y5 = 2.440,Y6 = 2.356,Y7 = 8.376,Y = 15.964.
In the present study, according to the proposed process, three batches of the processed product were prepared in parallel. The results revealed that the values of Y (%) for the three batches of the processed products were 15.41, 15.38, and 15.31 (see Table 6). The data in Table 6 reveal that the optimized process in the present study exhibits good parallelism.
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