• American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.

    Book 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Arcelus J, Mitchell AJ, Wales J, Nielsen S. Mortality rates in patients with anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders: a meta-analysis of 36 studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68:724–31.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Mitchell JE, Crow S. Medical complications of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2006;19:438–43.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Vos T, Mathers CD. The burden of mental disorders: a comparison of methods between the Australian burden of disease studies and the global burden of disease study. Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78:427–38.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Whiteford HA, Ferrari AJ, Degenhardt L, Feigin V, Vos T. The global burden of mental, neurological and substance use disorders: an analysis from the global burden of disease study. PLoS ONE. 2010;10:e0116820.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Murray SB, Quintana DS, Loeb KL, Griffiths S, Le Grange D. Treatment outcomes for anorexia nervosa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Psychol Med. 2019;49:535–44.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Watson HJ, Bulik CM. Update on the treatment of anorexia nervosa: review of clinical trials, practice guidelines and emerging interventions. Psychol Med. 2013;43:2477–500.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Fichter MM, Quadflieg N, Crosby RD, Koch S. Long-term outcome of anorexia nervosa: results from a large clinical longitudinal study. Int J Eat Disord. 2017;50:1018–30.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kringelbach ML. Food for thought: hedonic experience beyond homeostasis in the human brain. Neuroscience. 2004;126:807–19.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kaye WH, Fudge JL, Paulus M. New insights into symptoms and neurocircuit function of anorexia nervosa. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2009;10:573–84.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kaye WH, Wierenga CE, Bailer UF, Simmons AN, Bischoff-Grethe A. Nothing tastes as good as skinny feels: the neurobiology of anorexia nervosa. Trends Neurosci. 2013;36:110–20.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Cowdrey FA, Finlayson G, Park RJ. Liking compared with wanting for high- and low-calorie foods in anorexia nervosa: aberrant food reward even after weight restoration. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:463–70.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Jiang T, Soussignan R, Rigaud D, Schaal B. Pleasure for visual and olfactory stimuli evoking energy-dense foods is decreased in anorexia nervosa. Psychiatry Res. 2010;180:42–7.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Anderson LM, Crow SJ, Peterson CB. The impact of meal consumption on emotion among individuals with eating disorders. Eat Weight Disord Stud Anorex Bulim Obes. 2013;19:347–54.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Bruch H. The golden cage: the enigma of anorexia nervosa. Harvard University Press; 1978.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Bruch H. Conversations with anorexics: a compassionate and hopeful journey through the therapeutic process. Oxford: Basic Books; 1994.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Boehm I, Flohr L, Steding J, Holzapfel L, Seitz J, Roessner V, et al. The trajectory of anhedonic and depressive symptoms in anorexia nervosa: a longitudinal and cross-sectional approach. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2018;26:69–74.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Harrison A, Mountford VA, Tchanturia K. Social anhedonia and work and social functioning in the acute and recovered phases of eating disorders. Psychiatry Res. 2014;218:187–94.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Pinheiro AP, Raney TJ, Thornton LM, Fichter MM, Berrettini WH, Goldman D, et al. Sexual functioning in women with eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord. 2009;43:123–9.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Gonidakis F, Kravvariti V, Varsou E. Sexual function of women suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. J Sex Marital Ther. 2015;41:368–78.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Anderluh MB, Tchanturia K, Rabe-Hesketh S, Treasure J. Childhood obsessive-compulsive personality traits in adult women with eating disorders: defining a broader eating disorder phenotype. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:242–7.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Soussignan R, Jiang T, Rigaud D, Royet JP, Schaal B. Subliminal fear priming potentiates negative facial reactions to food pictures in women with anorexia nervosa. Psychol Med. 2010;40:503–14.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Soussignan R, Schaal B, Rigaud D, Royet JP, Jiang T. Hedonic reactivity to visual and olfactory cues: rapid facial electromyographic reactions are altered in anorexia nervosa. Biol Psychol. 2011;86:265–72.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Cardi V, Di Matteo R, Corfield F, Treasure J. Social reward and rejection sensitivity in eating disorders: an investigation of attentional bias and early experiences. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2013;14:622–33.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Watson KK, Werling DM, Zucker NL, Platt ML. Altered social reward and attention in anorexia nervosa. Front Psychol. 2010;1:36.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Cardi V, Corfield F, Leppanen J, Rhind C, Deriziotis S, Hadjimichalis A, et al. Emotional processing, recognition, empathy and evoked facial expression in eating disorders: an experimental study to map deficits in social cognition. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0133827.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Davies H, Schmidt U, Tchanturia K. Emotional facial expression in women recovered from anorexia nervosa. BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13:291.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kaye WH, Frank GK, McConaha C. Altered dopamine activity after recovery from restricting-type anorexia nervosa. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1999;21:503–6.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Frank GK, Bailer UF, Henry SE, Drevets W, Meltzer CC, Price JC, et al. Increased dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding after recovery from anorexia nervosa measured by positron emission tomography and [11c]raclopride. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;58:908–12.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Frank GK, Shott ME, Hagman JO, Mittal VA. Alterations in brain structures related to taste reward circuitry in ill and recovered anorexia nervosa and in bulimia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 2013;170:1152–60.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Titova OE, Hjorth OC, Schiöth HB, Brooks SJ. Anorexia nervosa is linked to reduced brain structure in reward and somatosensory regions: a meta-analysis of VBM studies. BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13:110.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Cha J, Ide JS, Bowman FD, Simpson HB, Posner J, Steinglass JE. Abnormal reward circuitry in anorexia nervosa: a longitudinal, multimodal MRI study. Hum Brain Mapp. 2016;37:3835–46.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Via E, Zalesky A, Sánchez I, Forcano L, Harrison BJ, Pujol J, et al. Disruption of brain white matter microstructure in women with anorexia nervosa. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2014;39:367–75.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Jiang T, Soussignan R, Carrier E, Royet JP. Dysfunction of the mesolimbic circuit to food odors in women with anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a fMRI Study. Front Hum Neurosci. 2019;13:117.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Brooks SJ, O’Daly OG, Uher R, Friederich HC, Giampietro V, Brammer M, et al. Differential neural responses to food images in women with bulimia versus anorexia nervosa. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22259.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Holsen L, Lawson EA, Blum J, Ko E, Makris N, Fazeli PK, et al. Food motivation circuitry hypoactivation related to hedonic and nonhedonic aspects of hunger and satiety in women with active anorexia nervosa and weight-restored women with anorexia nervosa. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2012;37:322–32.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • McFadden KL, Tregellas JR, Shott ME, Frank GKW. Reduced salience and default mode network activity in women with anorexia nervosa. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2014;39:178–88.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Oberndorfer TA, Frank GKW, Simmons AN, Wagner A, McCurdy D, Fudge JL, et al. Altered insula response to sweet taste processing after recovery from anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 2013;170:1143–51.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Cowdrey FA, Park RJ, Harmer CJ, McCabe C. Increased neural processing of rewarding and aversive food stimuli in recovered anorexia nervosa. Biol Psychiat. 2011;70:736–43.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Vocks S, Busch M, Grönemeyer D, Schulte D, Herpertz S, Suchan B. Neural correlates of viewing photographs of one’s own body and another woman’s body in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: an fMRI study. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2010;35:163–76.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kerr KL, Moseman SE, Avery JA, Bodurka J, Simmons WK. Influence of visceral interoceptive experience on the brain’s response to food images in anorexia nervosa. Psychosom Med. 2017;79:777–84.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Uher R, Brammer MJ, Murphy T, Campbell IC, Ng VW, Williams SCR, et al. Recovery and chronicity in anorexia nervosa: brain activity associated with differential outcomes. Biol Psychiatty. 2003;54:934–42.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Uher R, Murphy T, Brammer MJ, Dalgleish T, Phillips ML, Ng VW, et al. Medial prefrontal cortex activity associated with symptom provocation in eating disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:1238–46.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Wagner A, Aizenstein H, Venkatraman VK, Fudge J, May JC, Mazurkewicz L, et al. Altered reward processing in women recovered from anorexia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:1842–9.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Steinglass JE, Lempert KM, Choo T-H, Kimeldorf MB, Wall M, Walsh BT, et al. Temporal discounting across three psychiatric disorders: anorexia nervosa, obsessive compulsive disorder, and social anxiety disorder. Depress Anxiety. 2017;34:463–70.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Serpell L, Treasure J, Teasdale J, Sullivan V. Anorexia nervosa: friend or foe? Int J Eat Disord. 1999;25:177–86.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Brotsky SR, Giles D. Inside the “pro-ana” community: a covert online participant observation. Eat Disord. 2007;15:93–109.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Fladung A-K, Grön G, Grammer K, Gerrnberger B, Schilly E, Grasteit S, et al. A neural signature of anorexia nervosa in the ventral striatal reward system. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:206–12.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Fladung A-K, Schulze UME, Schöll F, Bauer K, Grön G. Role of the ventral striatum in developing anorexia nervosa. Transl Psychiatry. 2013;3:e315.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Holsen LM, Lawson EA, Christensen K, Klibanski A, Goldstein JM. Abnormal relationships between the neural response to high- and low-calorie foods and endogenous acylated ghrelin in women with active and weight-recovered anorexia nervosa. Psychiatry Res. 2014;223:94–103.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Haynos AF, Lavender JM, Nelson J, Crow SJ, Peterson CB. Moving towards specificity: a systematic review of cue features associated with reward and punishment in anorexia nervosa. Clin Psychol Rev. 2020;79:101872.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Frank GKW, DeGuzman MC, Shott ME, Laudenslager ML, Rossi B, Pryor T. Association of brain reward learning response with harm avoidance, weight gain, and hypothalamic effective connectivity in adolescent anorexia nervosa. JAMA Psychiat. 2018;75:1071–80.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Monteleone AM, Monteleone P, Esposito F, Prinster A, Volpe U, Canton E, et al. Altered processing of rewarding and aversive basic taste stimuli in symptomatic women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: an fMRI study. J Psychiatry Res. 2017;90:94–101.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Steding J, Boehm I, King JA, Geisler D, Ritschel F, Seidel M, et al. Goal-directed vs. habitual instrumental behavior during reward processing in anorexia nervosa: an fMRI study. Sci Rep. 2019;9:13529.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Pike KM. Long-term course of anorexia nervosa: response, relapse, remission, and recovery. Clin Psychol Rev. 1998;18:447–75.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Schebendach JE, Mayer LE, Devlin MJ, Attia E, Contento IR, Wolf RL, et al. Dietary energy density and diet variety as predictors of outcome in anorexia nervosa. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:810–6.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Carter JC, Blackmore E, Sutandar-Pinnock K, Woodside B. Relapse in anorexia nervosa: a survival analysis. Psychol Med. 2004;4:671–9.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Martin-Soelch C, Linthicum J, Ernst M. Appetitive conditioning: neural bases and implications for psychopathology. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2007;31:426–40.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Watson HJ, Yilmaz Z, Thornton LM, Hübel C, Coleman JRI, Gaspar HA, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies eight risk loci and implicates metabo-psychiatric origins for anorexia nervosa. Nat Genet. 2019;51:1207–14.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Drevets WC. Neuroimaging and neuropathological studies of depression: implications for the cognitive-emotional features of mood disorders. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2001;11:240–9.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Carr KD. Chronic food restriction: enhancing effects on drug reward and striatal cell signaling. Physiol Behav. 2007;91:459–72.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Carr KD, Tsimberg Y, Berman Y, Yamamoto N. Evidence of increased dopamine receptor signaling in food-restricted rats. Neuroscience. 2003;119:1157–67.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Avena NM, Rada P, Hoebel BG. Underweight rats have enhanced dopamine release and blunted acetylcholine response in the nucleus accumbens while bingeing on sucrose. Neuroscience. 2008;156:865–71.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Oinio V, Bäckström P, Uhari-Väänänen J, Raasmaja A, Piepponen P, Kiianmaa K, et al. Dopaminergic modulation of reward-guided decision making in alcohol-preferring AA rats. Behav Brain Res. 2017;326:87–95.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Frank GKW, DeGuzman MC, Shott ME. Motivation to eat and not to eat—the psychobiological conflict in anorexia nervosa. Physiol Behav. 2019;206:185–90.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • DeGuzman M, Shott ME, Yang TT, Riederer J, Frank GKW. Association of elevated reward prediction error response with weight gain in adolescent anorexia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 2017;174:557–65.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Bernardoni F, King JA, Geisler D, Stein E, Jaite C, Nätsch D, et al. Weight restoration therapy rapidly reverses cortical thinning in anorexia nervosa: a longitudinal study. Neuroimage. 2016;130:214–22.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Dalla C, Shors TJ. Sex differences in learning processes of classical and operant conditioning. Physiol Behav. 2009;97:229–38.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Tapia León I, Kruse O, Stalder T, Stark R, Klucken T. Neural correlates of subjective CS/UCS association in appetitive conditioning. Hum Brain Mapp. 2018;39:1637–46.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Lock J, Le Grange D, Agras WS, Fitzpatrick KK, Jo B, Accurso E, et al. Can adaptive treatment improve outcomes in family-based therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa? feasibility and treatment effects of a multi-site treatment study. Behav Res Ther. 2015;73:90–5.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Fairburn CG, Cooper Z. The eating disorder examination. In: Fairburn CG, Wilson GT, editors. Binge eating: nature, assessment & treatment, vol. 12. New York: Guilford Press; 1993. p. 317–60.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Parsons CE, Young KS, Craske MG, Stein AL, Kringelbach ML. Introducing the oxford vocal (OxVoc) sounds database: a validated set of non-acted affective sounds from human infants, adults, and domestic animals. Front Psychol. 2014;5:562.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Riem MME, Ijzendoorn MHV, Tops M, Boksem MAS, Rombouts SARB, Kranenburg-Bakermans MJ. No laughing matter: intranasal oxytocin administration changes functional brain connectivity during exposure to infant laughter. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37:1257–66.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Brown LA, LeBeau RT, Chat KY, Craske MG. Associative learning versus fear habituation as predictors of long-term extinction retention. Cogn Emot. 2017;31:687–98.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Staples-Bradley LK, Treanor M, Craske MG. Discrimination between safe and unsafe stimuli mediates the relationship between trait anxiety and return of fear. Cogn Emot. 2018;32:167–73.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Pietrock C, Ebrahimi C, Katthagen TM, Koch SP, Heinz A, Rothkirch M, et al. Pupil dilation as an implicit measure of appetitive Pavlovian learning. Psychophysiology. 2019;56:e13463.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Murphy PR, O’Connell RG, O’Sullivan M, Robertson IH, Balsters JH. Pupil diameter covaries with BOLD activity in human locus coeruleus. Hum Brain Mapp. 2014;35:4140–54.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Joshi S, Li Y, Kalwani RM, Gold JI. Relationships between pupil diameter and neuronal activity in the locus coeruleus, colliculi, and cingulate cortex. Neuron. 2016;89:221–34.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Bouret S, Sara SJ. Reward expectation, orientation of attention and locus coeruleus-medial frontal cortex interplay during learning. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:791–802.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Hoeks B, Levelt WJM. Pupillary dilation as a measure of attention: a quantitative system analysis. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput. 1993;25:16–26.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Esteban O, Markiewicz CJ, Blair RW, Moodie CA, Isik AI, Erramuzpe A, et al. fMRIPrep: a robust preprocessing pipeline for functional MRI. Nat Methods. 2019;16:111–6.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Pauli WM, Nili AN, Tyszka JM. A high-resolution probabilistic in vivo atlas of human subcortical brain nuclei. Sci Data. 2018;5:180063.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Sheehan DV, Sheehan KH, Shytle RD, Janavs J, Bannon Y, Rogers JE, et al. Reliability and validity of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents (MINI-KID). J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71:313–26.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Carver CS, White TL. Behavioural inhibition, behavioural activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: the BIS/BAS scales. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1994;67:319–33.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Lovibond PF, Lovibond SH. The structure of the negative emotional states: comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behav Res Ther. 1995;33:335–43.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Mahmoud JSR, Hall LA, Staten R. The psychometric properties of the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) among a sample of young adults. South Online J Nurs Res. 2010;10:21–34.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene RE. STAI manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press; 1970.


    Google Scholar
     

  • Kaye WH, Bulik CM, Thornton L, Barbarich N, Masters K. Comorbidity of anxiety disorders with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:2215–21.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Grillon C, Ameli R, Foot M, Davis M. Fear-potentiated startle: relationship to the level of state/trait anxiety in healthy subjects. Biol Psychiatry. 1993;33:566–74.

    PubMed 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Paulus PC, Castegnetti G, Bach DR. Modeling event-related heart period responses. Psychophysiology. 2016;53:837–46.

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Hayes AF. Partial, conditional, and moderated moderated mediation: Quantification, inference, and interpretation. Commun Monogr. 2018;85:4–40.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Rights and permissions

    Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

    Disclaimer:

    This article is autogenerated using RSS feeds and has not been created or edited by OA JF.

    Click here for Source link (https://www.biomedcentral.com/)