High-level commission on health employment and economic growth. Working for health and growth: investing in the health workforce. World Health Organization. 2016. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/250047/9789241511308-eng.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed 03 Aug 2020.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World population ageing 2019 (ST/ESA/SER.A/444): United Nations; 2020. https://www.un.org/development/desa/pd/sites/www.un.org.development.desa.pd/files/files/documents/2020/Jan/un_2019_worldpopulationageing_report.pdf. Accessed 03 Aug 2020
Campbell J, Dussault G, Buchan J, Pozo-Martin F, Guerra Arias M, Leone C, et al. A universal truth: no health without a workforce. Forum Report 2013, Third Global Forum on Human Resources for Health, Recife, Brazil. Geneva: Global Health Workforce Alliance and World Health Organization; 2013. https://www.who.int/workforcealliance/knowledge/resources/GHWA-a_universal_truth_report.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 10 Aug 2020
NHS England, Public Health England, Care Quality Commission, Monitor, NHS Trust Development Authority, Health Education England. NHS five year forward view: NHS England; 2014. https://www.england.nhs.uk/ourwork/futurenhs/. Accessed 10 Aug 2020
Rosen R. Delivering general practice with too few GPs: Nuffield Trust; 2019. https://www.nuffieldtrust.org.uk/files/2019-10/general-practice-without-gps-v2.pdf. Accessed 14 Aug 2020
Jones R, Jones R, Newbold M, Reilly J, Drinkwater R, Stoate H. The future of primary and secondary care. Br J Gen Pract. 2013;63:379–82. https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp13X669400.
Scally G, Jacobson B, Abbasi K. The UK’s public health response to covid-19. BMJ. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1932.
Sampson R, Cooper J, Barbour R, Polson R, Wilson P. Patients’ perspectives on the medical primary-secondary care interface: systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research. BMJ Open. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008708.
Naylor C, Alderwick H, Honeyman M. Acute hospitals and integrated care: from hospitals to health systems: King’s Fund; 2015. https://www.kingsfund.org.uk/sites/default/files/field/field_publication_file/acute-hospitals-and-integrated-care-march-2015.pdf. Accessed 26 Aug 2020
Cresswell A, Hart M, Suchanek O, Young T, Leaver L, Hibbs S. Mind the gap: improving discharge communication between secondary and primary care. BMJ Qual Improv Rep. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjquality.u207936.w3197.
Epstein RM. Communication between primary care physicians and consultants. Arch Fam Med. 1995;4:403–9.
Drummond N, Abdalla M, Buckingham JK, et al. Integrated care for asthma: a clinical, social, and economic evaluation. Grampian asthma study of integrated care (GRASSIC). BMJ. 1994;308:559–64. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.308.6928.559.
Integrated care for diabetes: a clinical, social and economic evaluation. Diabetes integrated care evaluation team. BMJ. 1994;308:1208–12. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.308.6938.1208.
Midlands Therapeutics Review and Advisory Committee. Independent review of medicines for primary care. http://ccg.centreformedicinesoptimisation.co.uk/mtrac/. Accessed 03 Aug 2020.
Hickman M, Drummond N, Grimshaw J. A taxonomy of shared care of chronic disease. J Public Health Med. 1994;16:447–54.
Horne R, Mailey E, Frost S, Lea R. Shared care: a qualitative study of GPs’ and hospital doctors’ views on prescribing specialist medicines. Br J Gen Pract. 2001;51:187–93.
Specialist Pharmacy Service. RMOC work programme: NHS England; 2020. https://www.sps.nhs.uk/topics/?with=rMOc. Accessed 03 Mar 2020
Smith SM, Cousins G, Clyne B, Allwright S, O’Dowd T. Shared care across the interface between primary and specialty care in management of long term conditions. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004910.pub3.
National Health Service Management Executive. Responsibility for prescribing between hospitals and GPs. London: NHS Management Executive; 1991.
British Medical Association. Primary and secondary care interface guidance. https://www.bma.org.uk/collective-voice/committees/general-practitioners-committee/gpc-current-issues/nhs-england-standard-hospital-contract-guidance-2017-2019/primary-and-secondary-care-interface-guidance. Accessed 03 Mar 2020.
Shared care protocols – have they had their day? Drug Ther Bull. 2017;55:133 https://dtb.bmj.com/content/55/12/133. Accessed 03 Mar 2020.
Wilcock M, Rohilla A. Three decades of shared care guidelines: are we any further forward? Drug Ther Bull. 2020; https://dtb.bmj.com/content/58/5/67. Accessed 03 Mar 2020.
Crowe S, Cantrill JA, Tully MP. Shared care arrangements for specialist drugs in the UK: the challenges facing GP adherence. Qual Saf Health Care. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1136/qshc.2009.035857.
NHS England. Responsibility for prescribing between primary & secondary/tertiary care; 2018. https://www.england.nhs.uk/publication/responsibility-for-prescribing-between-primary-and-secondary-tertiary-care/. Accessed 03 Aug 2020
Tan EC, Stewart K, Elliott RA, George J. Pharmacist services provided in general practice clinics: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2014:608–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2013.08.006.
Wood S. Safer prescribing and monitoring of high-risk medicines. Prescriber. 2020;31(4):10–5.
NHS. The NHS long term plan; 2019. https://www.longtermplan.nhs.uk/. Accessed 03 Mar 2020
Petty D. Clinical pharmacist roles in primary care networks. Prescriber. 2019;30(11):22–6.
Higgins JPT, Thomas J, Chandler J, Cumpston M, Li T, Page MJ, et al. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions version 6.0 (updated July 2019). Cochrane; 2019. https://training.cochrane.org/cochrane-handbook-systematic-reviews-interventions. Accessed 05 May 2020.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, The PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. BMJ. 2009. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b2535.
Clarivate Analytics. EndNote. Version X8.2. Philadelphia: Clarivate Analytics; 2018.
Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC). Data collection form. In: EPOC Resources for review authors: Cochrane; 2017. https://epoc.cochrane.org/resources/epoc-resources-review-authors. Accessed 04 Mar 2020.
Hong QN, Pluye P, Fàbregues S, Bartlett G, Boardman F, Cargo M, et al. Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT), version 2018. Registration of Copyright (#1148552), Canadian Intellectual Property Office, Industry Canada. Available at: – http://mixedmethodsappraisaltoolpublic.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/127916259/MMAT_2018_criteria-manual_2018-08-01_ENG.pdf. Accessed 12 April 2022
Adams B. NHS alliance: The evolution of primary care. Prescriber. 2015;26(3):32–4. Available: – https://wileymicrositebuilder.com/prescriber/wpcontent/uploads/sites/23/2015/12/NHS-Alliance-the-evolution-of-primary-care.pdf. Accessed 12 Apr 2022.
Agyapong VI, Conway C, Guerandel A. Shared care between specialized psychiatric services and primary care: the experiences and expectations of consultant psychiatrists in Ireland. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2011;42(3):295–313. https://doi.org/10.2190/2FPM.42.3.e.
Al-Alawi K, Al Mandhari A, Johansson H. Care providers’ perceptions towards challenges and opportunities for service improvement at diabetes management clinics in public primary health care in Muscat, Oman: a qualitative study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2019;19(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-3866-y.
Alhabib S, Aldraimly M, Alfarhan A. An evolving role of clinical pharmacists in managing diabetes: Evidence from the literature. Saudi Pharm J. 2016;24(4):441–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2014.07.008.
Ali S, Smith TL, Mican L, Brown C. Psychiatric providers’ willingness to participate in shared decision-making when prescribing psychotropic medications. J Pharm Pract. 2013;26(3):334. https://doi.org/10.1177/2F8755122515578288.
Aljumah K, Hassali MA. Impact of pharmacist intervention on adherence and measurable patient outcomes among depressed patients: A randomised controlled study. BMC Psychiatry. 2015;15(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-015-0605-8.
Almunef M, Mason J, Curtis C, Jalal Z. Management of chronic illness in young people aged 10-24 years: A systematic review to explore the role of primary care pharmacists. Arch Dis Child. 2019;104(7):e2.39–e2. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2019-nppc.44.
Alshehri AA, Cheema E, Yahyouche A, et al. Evaluating the role and integration of general practice pharmacists in England: a cross-sectional study. Int J Clin Pharm. 2021;43:1609–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-021-01291-6.
Anderson K, Freeman C, Rowett D, Burrows J, Scott I, Rigby D. Polypharmacy, deprescribing and shared decision-making in primary care: the role of the accredited pharmacist. J Pharm Pract. 2015;45(4):446–9. https://doi.org/10.1002/jppr.1164.
General Practitioner/pharmacy interface a local initiative Pharm J. 1994;253(6812):574.
The role of pharmacists in primary care groups (PCGs): a strategic approach. Pharm J. 1999;262(7038):445–6.
Pharmacy in a new age: the role of government. Pharm J. 1995;255(6863):1995.
Shared care addiction scheme starts. Pharm J. 2003;270(7252):782.
Ashcroft DM, Clark CM, Gorman SP. Shared care: A study of patients’ experiences with erythropoietin. Int J Pharm Pract. 1998;6(3):145–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7174.1998.tb00930.x.
Bains S, Naqvi M, West A. S126 The pharmacist-led accelerated transfer of patients to shared care for the monitoring and prescribing of immunomodulatory therapy during covid-19. Thorax. 2021;76:A75. https://thorax.bmj.com/content/76/Suppl_1/A75.2.
Bajramovic J, Emmerton L, Tett SE. Perceptions around concordance–focus groups and semi-structured interviews conducted with consumers, pharmacists and general practitioners. Health Expect. 2004;7(3):221–34. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1369-7625.2004.00280.x.
Barnes E, Ashraf I, Din A. New roles for clinical pharmacists in general practice. Prescriber. 2017;28(4):26–9. https://wileymicrositebuilder.com/prescriber/wpcontent/uploads/sites/23/2017/04/Pharmacist-new-roles-EB-edit-AC-made-lsw.pdf.
Bellingham C. How to improve medicines management at the primary/secondary care interface. Pharm J. 2004;272(7287):210–1.
Berendsen AJ, de Jong GM, Meyboom-de Jong B, Dekker JH, Schuling J. Transition of care: experiences and preferences of patients across the primary/secondary interface–a qualitative study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2009;9(1):62. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-9-62.
Bojke C, Philips Z, Sculpher M, et al. Cost-effectiveness of shared pharmaceutical care for older patients : RESPECT trial findings. Br J Gen Pract. 2010;60(570):e20–7. https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp09X482312.
British National Association of Health and Trusts. NAHAT Update: asthma care – the challenge ahead. Conference 1994.
Cain RM, Cain RM. The physician-pharmacist interface in the clinical practice of pharmacy. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40(12):2240–2. https://doi.org/10.1345/aph.140048.
Carrington I, McAloon J. Why shared-care arrangements for prescribing in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may not be accepted. Eur J Hosp Pharm. 2018;25(4):222–4.
Chana N, Porat T, Whittlesea C, Delaney B. Improving specialist drug prescribing in primary care using task and error analysis: an observational study. Br J Gen Pract. 2017;67(656):e157–67. https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp17x689389.
Chartrand M, Maheu A, Guenette L, Martin E, Moisan J, Gregoire JP, Lauzier S, Blais L, Perreault S, Lalonde L. Implementation and evaluation of pharmacy services through a practice-based research network (PBRN). Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology. 2013;20(3):e272–3.
Cox WM. Evaluation of a shared-care program for methadone treatment of drug abuse: An international perspective. Journal of Drug Issues. 2002;32(4):1115–23. https://doi.org/10.1177/2F002204260203200407.
Crowe S, Tully MP, Cantrill JA. The prescribing of specialist medicines: what factors influence GPs’ decision making? Family practice. 2009;26(4):301–8.
Crowe S, Cantrill JA, Tully MP. Shared care arrangements for specialist drugs in the UK: the challenges facing GP adherence. Qual Saf Health Care. 2010;19(6):e54.
Duggan C, Beavon N, Bates I, Patel S. Shared care in the UK: Failings of the past and lessons for the future. Int J Pharm Pract. 2001;9(3):211–6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7174.2001.tb01051.x.
Fearne J, Grech L, Inglott AS, Azzopardi LM. Development and evaluation of shared paediatric pharmaceutical care plan. Int J Clin Pharm. 2018;40(1):263–4.
Finch E, Ford C [ed]. Shared care at the primary and secondary interface: GPs and specialist drug services. Drug misuse and community pharmacy 2002 1st Edition. eBook ISBN 9780429229848.
Grixti D, Vella J, Fearne J, Grech L, Pizzuto MA, Serracino-Inglott A. Development of shared care guidelines in rheumatology. Int J Clin Pharm. 2014;36(4):850.
Gu Y, Humphrey G, Warren J, Tibby S, Bycroft J, editors. An Innovative Approach to Shared Care–New Zealand Pilot Study of a Technology-enabled National Shared Care Planning Programme. Health Informatics New Zealand Conference; 2012
James O, Cardwell K, Moriarty F, Smith SM, Clyne B, on behalf of the General Practice Pharmacist (GPP) Study Group. Pharmacists in general practice: a qualitative process evaluation of the General Practice Pharmacist (GPP) study. Family Practice. 2020;37(5):711–8. https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cmaa044.
Johnson C. Adult attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) clinic: A collaboration between psychiatry, primary care and pharmacy to improve access, care experience and affordability. JACCP. 2018;1(2):318.
Jones BW, Clark W. Shared care agreements – How to overcome the blank page. Pharm J. 2003;270(7234):165–6.
Jones C, Robinson H, Trickey J, Rees D, Jolliffe V, Wood J, et al. UPDATE ON THE INTRODUCTION OF DOSE TAPERING TO MODERNIzE AND IMPROVE THE BIOLOGICS SERVICE IN A DISTRICT GENERAL HOSPITAL. Rheumatology. 2017;56(suppl_2):kex062.143. https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kex062.143.
Jones E, Cuevas OA. P12 An audit on the use and monitoring of azathioprine (aza) in a paediatric gastroenterology centre. could nhs england via specialist commissioning rules (nhs-e-spr) be affecting quality of care? Arch Dis Child. 2018;103:e2. https://adc.bmj.com/content/103/2/e2.14.
Lloyd LA, Breslin A, Jones J. An audit of methotrexate monitoring in primary care as part of a shared care agreement. Rheumatology. 2009;(1):i61.
MacLellan J, Shahmanesh M, Singh S, Morton J, Estcourt C, Asboe. Shared care: how can we do it? Findings from the BHIVA primary care project. British HIV Association BHIVA. Available at: https://www.bhiva.org/file/PsGAzexFTYXJy/Shared-Care.pdf. Accessed 12 Apr 2022.
Mercer K, Burns C, Guirguis L, Chin J, Dogba MJ, Dolovich L, et al. Physician and pharmacist medication decision-making in the time of electronic health records: Mixed-methods study. J Med Internet Res. 2018;20(9). https://doi.org/10.2196/humanfactors.9891.
Mercer K, Neiterman E, Guirguis L, Burns C, Grindrod K. “My pharmacist”: Creating and maintaining relationship between physicians and pharmacists in primary care settings. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2020;16(1):102–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2019.03.144.
McWilliams T, Morakinyo K. Shared care guideline for the use of Methylphenidate, Dexamfetamine, Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate & Atomoxetine for the management of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adults (18-64years). East London NHS Foundation Trust; 2017. https://gp-website-cdnprod.s3.amazonaws.com/shared-care-downloads/1539870612-c9e7983bdf34a9c9dcc7f3063eada5e9.pdf. Accessed 12 April 2022.
Mousa Y, Kayyali R, Goldsmith C, Coughlan L, Cairns C, Evans C. Investigating the potential for improved management of patients with long term conditions through shared-care protocols. Pharmacy World and Science. 2009;31(4):502.
National Instititute of Health and Care excellence NICE) 2015. Transition between inpatient hospital settings and community or care home settings for adults with social care needs. NICE guideline [NG27]. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng27. Accessed 12 April 2022.
Nkansah N, Mostovetsky O, Yu C, Chheng T, Beney J, Bond CM, et al. Effect of outpatient pharmacists’ nondispensing roles on patient outcomes and prescribing patterns. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010(7). https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD000336.pub2.
O’Halloran KA. Developing Integrated Care Teams Across the North West London System. Int J Integr Care. 2016;16(6):A150. https://doi.org/10.5334/ijic.2698.
Petty D. Clinical pharmacist roles in primary care networks. Prescriber. 2019;30(11):22–6. https://doi.org/10.1002/psb.1802.
Murphy K. Clozapine, concomitant medications and consumers: Assessing the accuracy of medication records and the lived experience of people prescribed clozapine under shared care arrangements. Thesis Masters. Australia: Griffith University Queensland; 2018. https://doi.org/10.25904/1912/162.
Richmond S, Morton V, Cross B, Wong ICK, Russell I, Philips Z, et al. Effectiveness of shared pharmaceutical care for older patients: RESPECT trial findings. Br J Gen Pract. 2010;60(570):e10–9. https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp09X473295.
Roberts RI. The welsh sahred care prescribing project. Pharm J. 1997;258(6935).
Sibbald B, Wilkie P, Raftery J, Anderson S, Freeling P. Prescribing at the hospital-general practice interface. II: Impact of hospital outpatient dispensing policies in England on general practitioners and hospital consultants. BMJ. 1992;304(6818):31–4. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.304.6818.31.
Shemilt R, Azar M, Singh G, Campbell A, Gunnell KA. White S. An evaluation into the refusal of essential shared care agreements: Quetiapine. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2021;30(S2):3–20. https://doi.org/10.1002/pds.5315.
Smith SM, Cousins G, Clyne B, Allwright S, O’Dowd T. Shared care across the interface between primary and specialty care in management of long term conditions. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;2(2):CD004910. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004910.pub3.
Sowerby C, Taylor D. Cross-sector user and provider perceptions on experiences of shared-care clozapine: a qualitative study. BMJ Open. 2017;28;7(9):e017183. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017183.
Steckowych K, Smith M. Lessons learned and real-world challenges of implementing clinical pharmacy services in a primary care office. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2018;58(3):e132–e3 4.
Swallow VM, Nightingale R, Williams J, et al. Multidisciplinary teams, and parents, negotiating common ground in shared-care of children with long-term conditions: A mixed methods study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2013;13:264. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-13-264.
Taylor D, Sutton J, Dawson H. User and staff perspectives of clozapine clinic services. Int J Pharm Pract. 2010;2:72.
Terry DRP. Medicines management acrosss the primary-hospital healthcare interface: a study of paediatric patients. PhD thesis. https://publications.aston.ac.uk/id/eprint/15825/. Accessed 12 Apr 2022.
Terry D, Sinclair A. Prescribing for children at the interfaces of care. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed. 2012;97(4):152–6.
Travis SS, Bethea LS. Medication administration by family members of dependent elders in shared care arrangements. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology. 2001;7(3):231–43. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011395229262.
Tolley L, Azar M, Singh G, Gunnel KA, Campbell A, White S. An evaluation into the refusal of essential shared care agreements: Aripriprazole. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2021;30(S2):3–20. https://doi.org/10.1002/pds.5315.
Walker M. Shared care for opiate substance misusers in Berkshire. Pharm J. 2001;266(7144):547–52.
Yones E, Mullan J, Horwood A, Connell N, Odams S, Maloney J, et al. Prescribing dronedarone for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: How is it done across the UK and is it safe? Eur J Hosp Pharm. 2019;26(4):220–2.
Butterworth J, Sansom A, Sims L, Healey M, Kingsland E, Campbell J. Pharmacists’ perceptions of their emerging general practice roles in UK primary care: a qualitative interview study. Br J Gen Pract. 2017;67(662):e650–8.
Tan EC, Stewart K, Elliott RA, George J. Pharmacist consultations in general practice clinics: the pharmacists in practice study (PIPS). Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2013:623–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2013.08.005.
Bradley F, Seston E, Mannall C, Cutts C. Evolution of the general practice pharmacist’s role in England: a longitudinal study. Br J Gen Pract. 2018;68(675):e727–34.
Hazen AC, De Bont AA, Boelman L, Zwart DL, et al. The degree of integration of non-dispensing pharmacists in primary care practice and the impact on health outcomes: a systematic review. Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2018;14:228–40.
Weber ZA, Skelley J, Sachdev G, et al. Integration of pharmacists into team-based ambulatory care practice models. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2015;72(9):745–51. https://doi.org/10.2146/ajhp140576.
Benson H, Lucas C, Benrimoj SI, Williams KA. The development of a role description and competency map for pharmacists in an interprofessional care setting. Int J Clin Pharm. 2019;41(2):391–407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-019-00808-4.
Benson H, Lucas C, Kmet W, Benrimoj SI, Williams K. Pharmacists in general practice: a focus on drug-related problems. Int J Clin Pharm. 2018;40(3):566–72. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-018-0617-9.
Hayhoe B, Cespedes JA, Foley K, Majeed A, Ruzangi J, Greenfield G. Impact of integrating pharmacists into primary care teams on health systems indicators: a systematic review. Br J Gen Pract. 2019;69:e665–74.
Stuhec M, Lah L. Clinical pharmacist interventions in elderly patients with mental disorders in primary care focused on psychotropics: a retrospective pre-post observational study. Ther Adv Psychopharmacol. 2021;11:20451253211011007.
Stuhec M, Gorenc K, Zelko E. Evaluation of a collaborative care approach between general practitioners and clinical pharmacists in primary care community settings in elderly patients on polypharmacy in Slovenia: a cohort retrospective study reveals positive evidence for implementation. BMC Health Serv Res. 2019;19(1):118.
Stuhec M, Flegar I, Zelko E, Kovačič A, Zabavnik V. Clinical pharmacist interventions in cardiovascular disease pharmacotherapy in elderly patients on excessive polypharmacy: a retrospective pre-post observational multicentric study. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2021;133(15-16):770–9.
Stuhec M, Gorenc K. Positive impact of clinical pharmacist interventions on antipsychotic use in patients on excessive polypharmacy evidenced in a retrospective cohort study. Global Psychiatry. 2019;2:155–63. https://doi.org/10.2478/gp-2019-0013.
NHS England, Public Health England, Health Education England, Monitor, Care Quality Commission, NHS Trust Development Authority. Five year forward view. http://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/5yfv-web.pdf. Accessed 18 Aug 2020.
Mann C, Anderson C, Avery A, Waring J, Boyd M. Clinical pharmacists in general practice: pilot scheme independent evaluation report: full report: University of Nottingham; 2018. https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/pharmacy/documents/generalpracticeyearfwdrev/clinical-pharmacists-in-general-practice-pilot-scheme-full-report.pdf. Accessed 13 Jan 2020.
Reiss-Brennan B, Brunisholz KD, Dredge C, Briot P, Grazier K, Wilcox A, et al. Association of integrated team-based care with health care quality, utilization, and cost. JAMA. 2016;316:826–34.
Weeks G, George J, MacLure K, Stewart D. Non-medical pre-scribing versus medical prescribing for acute and chronic disease management in primary and secondary care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;11:CD01122.
Anderson C, Zhan K, Boyd M, Mann C. The role of pharmacists in general practice: a realist review. Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2019;15:338–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2018.06.001.
Raynsford J, Dada C, Stansfield D, Cullen T. Impact of a specialist mental health pharmacy team on medicines optimisation in primary care for patients on a severe mental illness register: a pilot study. Eur J Hosp Pharm. 2020;27(1):31–5.
Nkansah N, Mostovetsky O, Yu C, Chheng T, Beney J, Bond CM, et al. Effect of outpatient pharmacists’ non-dispensing roles on patient outcomes and prescribing patterns. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;2010(7):CD000336. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD000336.pub2.
Trust GPs to lead: learning from the response to COVID-19 within general practice in England BMA. 2020. Available from: https://www.bma.org.uk/media/2652/bma-report-trust-gps-to-lead-june-2020.pdf. Accessed 01 Sep 2020.
Avery AJ. Pharmacists working in general practice: can they help tackle the current workload crisis? Br J Gen Pract. 2017;67(662):390–1.
Jorgenson D, Laubscher T, Lyons B, Palmer R. Integrating pharmacists into primary care teams: barriers and facilitators. Int J Pharm Pract. 2014;22(4):292–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpp.12080.
Schlosser RW, Sigafoos J. ‘Empty’ reviews and evidence-based practice. Evid Based Commun Assess Interv. 2009;1–3. https://doi.org/10.1080/17489530902801067.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.