Due P, Krølner R, Rasmussen M, Andersen A, Trab Damsgaard M, Graham H, Holstein BE. Pathways and mechanisms in adolescence contribute to adult health inequalities. Scand J Public Health. 2011;39(6_suppl):62–78.
Sawyer SM, Afifi RA, Bearinger LH, Blakemore SJ, Dick B, Ezeh AC, Patton G. C: Adolescence: a foundation for future health. Lancet. 2012;379(9826):1630–40.
Currie C, Gabhainn SN, Godeau E. The health behaviour in school-aged children: WHO collaborative cross-national (HBSC) study: origins, concept, history and development 1982–2008. Int J Public Health. 2009;54(2):131–9.
Inchley J, Currie D, Cosma A, Samdal O. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study protocol: Background, methodology and mandatory items for the 2017/18 survey. St Andrews: CAHRU; 2018.
Liu Y, Wang M, Tynjälä J, Lv Y, Villberg J, Zhang Z, Kannas L. Test-retest reliability of selected items of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey questionnaire in Beijing, China. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2010;10(1):1–9.
Nguyen Tran L. Even it Up: How to tackle inequality in Vietnam. Hanoj: Labor – social publishing house; 2017.
General Statistics Office of Vietnam. Statistical summary book of Vietnam 2018. 2018.
General Statistics Office of Vietnam. Result of the Vietnam household living standards survey 2018. 2019.
Weiss B, Dang M, Trung L, Nguyen MC, Thuy NTH, Pollack A. A nationally representative epidemiological and risk factor assessment of child mental health in Vietnam. Int Perspect Psychol. 2014;3(3):139.
Nguyen PVN, Hong TK, Hoang T, Robert A. R: High prevalence of overweight among adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City. Vietnam BMC Public Health. 2013;13(1):1–7.
Ngan HTD, Tuyen LD, Van Phu P, Nambiar S. Childhood overweight and obesity amongst primary school children in Hai Phong City, Vietnam. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2018;27(2):399–405.
Hong TK, Dibley MJ, Sibbritt D, Binh PN, Trang NH, Hanh T. T: Overweight and obesity are rapidly emerging among adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2002–2004. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2007;2(4):194–201.
Wang Y. Cross-national comparison of childhood obesity: the epidemic and the relationship between obesity and socioeconomic status. Int J Epidemiol. 2001;30(5):1129–36.
Trang NH, Hong TK, Dibley MJ, Sibbritt D. W: Factors associated with physical inactivity in adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(7):1374–83.
Nguyen PVN, Hong TK, Robert A. R: Excessive screen viewing time by adolescents and body fatness in a developing country: Vietnam. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):174.
Van PhamHoan MD. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17:409.
Popkin BM, Gordon-Larsen P. The nutrition transition: worldwide obesity dynamics and their determinants. Int J Obes. 2004;28(3):S2–9.
Thi HT, Simioni M, Thomas-Agnan C. Assessing the nonlinearity of the calorie-income relationship: an estimation strategy–with new insights on nutritional transition in Vietnam. World Dev. 2018;110:192–204.
Bobakova D, Hamrik Z, Badura P, Sigmundova D, Nalecz H, Kalman M. Test–retest reliability of selected physical activity and sedentary behaviour HBSC items in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland. Int J Public Health. 2015;60(1):59–67.
Bosakova L, Kolarcik P, Bobakova D, Sulcova M, Van Dijk JP, Reijneveld SA, Geckova A. M: Test–retest reliability of the scale of participation in organized activities among adolescents in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Int J Public Health. 2016;61(3):329–36.
Booth ML, Okely AD, Chey T, Bauman A. The reliability and validity of the physical activity questions in the WHO health behaviour in schoolchildren (HBSC) survey: a population study. Br J Sports Med. 2001;35(4):263–7.
Haugland S, Wold B. Subjective health complaints in adolescence—reliability and validity of survey methods. J Adolesc. 2001;24(5):611–24.
Holubčíková J, Kudláček M, Širůček J, MadarasováGecková A. Test-retest reliability of selected HBSC items measuring problem behaviour among Slovak and Czech adolescents. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2018;26(3):204–8.
Vereecken CA, Maes L. A Belgian study on the reliability and relative validity of the health behaviour in school-aged children food-frequency questionnaire. Public Health Nutr. 2003;6(6):581–8.
Roberts C, Freeman J, Samdal O, Schnohr CW, De Looze ME, Gabhainn SN, International HBSC Study Group. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: methodological developments and current tensions. Int J Public Health. 2009;54(2):140–50.
Kaplan GA, Camacho T. Perceived health and mortality: a nine-year follow-up of the human population laboratory cohort. Am J Epidemiol. 1983;117(3):292–304.
Cantril H. The pattern of human concern. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press; 1965.
Prochaska JJ, Sallis JF, Long B. A physical activity screening measure for use with adolescents in primary care. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001;155(5):554–9.
Bucksch J, Sigmundova D, Hamrik Z, Troped PJ, Melkevik O, Ahluwalia N, Inchley J. International trends in adolescent screen-time behaviors from 2002 to 2010. J Adolesc Health. 2016;58(4):417–25.
Sigmund E, Sigmundová D, Badura P, Kalman M, Hamrik Z, Pavelka J. Temporal trends in overweight and obesity, physical activity and screen time among Czech adolescents from 2002 to 2014: A national health behaviour in school-aged children study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(9):11848–68.
Koo TK, Li MY. A guideline of selecting and reporting intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability research. J Chiropr Med. 2016;15(2):155–63.
Inchley J, Currie DB, Budisavljevic S, Torsheim T, Jåstad A, Cosma A, Arnarsson ÁM. Spotlight on adolescent health and well-being: Findings from the 2017/2018 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey in Europe and Canada. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2020.
Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for behavioral sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale: Erbaum Associates; 1988.
Kohl HW III, Fulton JE, Caspersen CJ. Assessment of physical activity among children and adolescents: a review and synthesis. Prev Med. 2000;31(2):S54–76.
Lubans DR, Hesketh K, Cliff DP, Barnett LM, Salmon J, Dollman J, Hardy LL. A systematic review of the validity and reliability of sedentary behaviour measures used with children and adolescents. Obes Rev. 2011;12(10):781–99.
Levin KA, Currie C. Reliability and validity of an adapted version of the Cantril Ladder for use with adolescent samples. Soc Indic Res. 2014;119(2):1047–63.
Muldoon JC, Levin K, van der Sluijs W, Currie C. Validating mental well-being items of the Scottish health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) survey. St Andrews: CAHRU; 2010.
Bacak V, Olafsdottir S. Gender and validity of self-rated health in nineteen European countries. Scand J Public Health. 2017;45(6):647–53.
Pavot W, Diener E. Review of the satisfaction with life scale. Psychol Asses. 1993;5(2):164–72.
Tran NTh. Discovering the identity of Vietnamese culture. Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam City: Ho Chi Minh City Publishing House; 2001.
Weisz JR, Suwanlert S, Chaiyasit W, Weiss B, Achenbach TM, Eastman KL. Behavioral and emotional problems among Thai and American adolescents: parent reports for ages 12–16. J Abnorm Psychol. 1993;102(3):395.
Lansford JE, Malone PS, Dodge KA, Chang L, Chaudhary N, Tapanya S, Deater-Deckard K. Children’s perceptions of maternal hostility as a mediator of the link between discipline and children’s adjustment in four countries. Int J Behav Develop. 2010;34(5):452–61.
Ng K, Hämylä R, Tynjälä J, Villberg J, Tammelin T, Kannas L, Kokko S. Test-retest reliability of adolescents’ self-reported physical activity item in two consecutive surveys. Archives of Public Health. 2019;77(1):1–8.
Rangul V, Holmen TL, Kurtze N, Cuypers K, Midthjell K. Reliability and validity of two frequently used self-administered physical activity questionnaires in adolescents. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2008;8(1):1–10.
Lanfer A, Hebestreit A, Ahrens W, Krogh V, Sieri S, Lissner L, Pala V. Reproducibility of food consumption frequencies derived from the children’s eating habits questionnaire used in the IDEFICS study. Int J Obes. 2011;35(1):S61–8.
Vereecken CA, Rossi S, Giacchi MV, Maes L. Comparison of a short food-frequency questionnaire and derived indices with a seven-day diet record in Belgian and Italian children. Int J Public Health. 2008;53(6):297–305.
Wong JE, Parnell WR, Black KE, Skidmore PM. Reliability and relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to assess food group intakes in New Zealand adolescents. Nutr J. 2012;11(1):1–9.
Speck BJ, Bradley CB, Harrell JS, Belyea MJ. A food frequency questionnaire for youth: psychometric analysis and summary of eating habits in adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2001;28(1):16–25.
Moreno LA, Gottrand F, Huybrechts I, Ruiz JR, González-Gross M, DeHenauw S, HELENA Study Group. Nutrition and lifestyle in european adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. Adv Nutr. 2014;5(5):615S-623S.
Asian Development Bank. VIET NAM Secondary Education Sector Assessment, Strategy, and Road Map. 2020.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.