General scheme

This paper mainly includes two parts. The first part discusses the digital restoration and protection of Qin opera costumes, and the second part describes the 3D fashion design based on Shaanxi opera clothing elements. The technical road map studied in this paper is shown in Fig. 1. The research of this paper is divided into seven steps. The first step is to collect 12 main Qin opera costumes. The second part is to draw these Qin opera costumes’ flats with AI tool. The third step is to make pattern with Fuyi CAD tool according to these costume flats. The fourth step is to use Clo3D software to restorage Qin opera costumes. The fifth step is to carry out the innovative design of the costumes according to the elements of Qin opera costumes.

Fig. 1
figure 1

The general scheme of this paper

Costume style of Qin opera costume

The costume of Qin opera consists of three parts: crown dress, body costume and shoes. The crown dress is the hat and decoration worn by the character’s head, such as crown, hat, forehead, towel (cap, hat), pheasant tail, beard etc. Body costumes are costumes to wear, including court robe, armor, robe (Pei), cloak, costume, robe (pao), casual coat etc. Foot costume is boots, shoes and socks etc. The costumes described in this paper are body costumes. At first, opera costume was divided into two categories: costumes for civilian and costumes for military. Then, costumes were divided into court robe, robe (Pei), causal coat, armor, and costume, as shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2
figure 2

Qin opera costumes’ style drawing

Style 1 and 2 are causal coats, which are worn by commoner. White causal coats are mourning costumes; As the status of commoner children is humble, the pattern of the causal coat they wore was a diagonal continuous pattern (a bipartite continuous pattern).

Style 3 and 4 are robes (Pei). The women’s flower causal robe is the costume worn by married young women, and the symmetrical pattern is used for maiden or married young women.

Style 5 is jacket and skirt, jacket is stand-up collar and oblique lapel, the cuffs are relatively tight. Jacket is worn on the inside of the robe. The skirts are divided into large folded skirt and pleated skirt. The jacket and skirt were worn by Huadan (a role of Qin opera) and originated from women’s costume in the Qing dynasty. They are light and generous. The collar, lapels, and cuffs of the jacket and skirt are edged at the hem.

The style 6 is a short sleeveless jacket Since The 18th which is usually worn by maid. The short sleeveless jacket is stand collar, large flaps, with left and right forks, and the lower body is matched with a large folding skirt. The waist of the skirt is tied with a waist band, and the hem of the skirt and horse face are decorated with lace. The overall color of the short sleeveless jacket and large folded skirt are more vibrant color.

Costume color and pattern of Qin opera costume

The color of Qin opera costume is an important part of Qin opera art. Costume color has a great impact on the shaping of characters in the play. Five colors are the core content of Qin opera wearing regulation, which has the stylized characteristics of distinguishing roles, symbolizing identity, indicating age, highlighting personality and setting off anger. Five colors represent the basic aesthetic style of Qin opera, which can be divided into upper five colors and lower five colors. The upper five colors refer to the five colors of red, yellow, green, white and black. The lower five colors refer to blue, purple, pink, lake and fragrance. The lower five colors can supplement the upper five colors, and the upper five colors can also replace the lower five colors. For example, red symbolizes dignity and value, yellow symbolizes kingship and dignity, green symbolizes solemnity, white symbolizes beauty and elegance, and black symbolizes integrity and poverty. The colors of Qin opera costume selected in this paper are extracted, as shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3
figure 3

Color element extraction from Qin opera costumes

Figure 3a is Snow in Summer, the causal coat, jacket and skirt are all white, and the patterns are composed of dayflower color, cyan and bright greenish blue. Figure 3b is the Unicorn Purse, the causal coat is dark blue, the skirt is white, and the pattern is composed of sky-blue, water and cyan. Figure 3c is a Flame-foal, the robe (Pei) is light blue. The skirt is white and the patterns are composed of tender pink, peach and willow. Figure 3d is the Unicorn Purse. The causal coat is peach red and the skirt is white. The patterns are composed of rose color, coral color, peach color, grass green, willow and pea green. Figure 3e is a Flame-Foal. The short sleeveless jacket is water blue, the jacket and large folded skirt are pink. The pattern is composed of cyan, blue, brown. The waist band is red. Figure 3f is the Unicorn Purse, the robe (Pei) and the pleated skirt are all red, the jacket is yellow, the patterns are composed of watermelon pink, purple and blue. Figure 3g is the Unicorn Purse. The robe (Pei) is lemon yellow, the jacket and skirt are all peach pink, the patterns are composed of water blue, dark green, peach, peony red and bright red. Figure 3h is the Young’s Female Warrior. The robe (Pei) is red, the jacket and skirt are all white. The patterns are composed of peach pink, light pink rose pink, carmine red, cochineal, pine leaf, willow and dark green. Figure 3i is Exploration the Kiln. The causal coat is sky blue; the jacket is lemon yellow and the skirt is white. The patterns are composed of celeste, cyan, sky blue and water blue. Figure 3j is Snow in Summer. The causal coat is water blue, the jacket and skirt are all white. The patterns are composed of dark purple, orchid, light purple, purple-pink. Figure 3k is the costume Xiao Ruolan wore during her lifetime, which is middle jacket and large folded skirt. Both jacket and skirt are all bean green, the piping is dark reddish purple. The patterns are composed of peach pink, rose pink and purplish red. Figure 3l is robe (Pei) which is dark green and the sleeves are white. The piping is mauve and the patterns are composed of yellow and light yellow.

Compared with the colors of Qin opera costume, the costume patterns are not only beautiful, various, but also complex and exquisite. The patterns also reflect the personality characteristics of each character. They are divided into animal patterns, plant patterns, natural landscape patterns, text patterns and other patterns that symbolize beauty and auspiciousness. Among these patterns, animal patterns include dragon and phoenix, crane, butterfly, etc. Each pattern has its own meaning, and they are full of longing for beautiful things. There are peony in plant patterns, and four gentlemen patterns which named plum blossom, orchid, bamboo, chrysanthemum and lotus, etc. These plant patterns are mostly from tough and noble plants with rich meanings. Natural landscape patterns include cloud, sea water river cliff, etc. Text patterns, such as hui, fu, shou and ruyi, which symbolizes auspiciousness. This paper analyzes and draws the patterns of the restored 12 opera costume, as shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4
figure 4

Pattern element extraction from Qin opera costumes

Costume fabric of Qin opera costume

The fabrics of traditional Qin opera costume include satin, crepe, damask, silk, cloth, etc. The 12 style of Qin opera costume restored in this paper are mainly made of crepe, damask and silk fabrics. These three fabrics are light, elegant and have good drapability. When used with cotton, they can better reflect the softness and elegance of female roles. Satin has smooth surface, luster, softness and heavy; it is mostly used for robe (Pei) and causal coat. The surface of crepe fabric is irregular concave and convex, and the fabric surface is rough, light and thin, which makes it cool to wear; damask belongs to twill silk fabric, with light and thin texture; damask is light, thin and soft, with a wide range of applications; cloth is cotton. Cotton is comfortable to wear, has good moisture absorption and air permeability, and it is lower price and cost. Cotton is mostly used in humble figures. When using different garment fabrics, the visual feeling expressed by the garment is different. Female opera costumes in DanJue are mostly used in crepe, silk and silk fabrics, supplemented by cotton fabrics. Taking the garment fabric as an example, this paper uses silk fabric as the fabric of fabric and cotton fabric as the fabric of water sleeve. Silk fabric is soft and glossy, giving people the feeling of high-end luxury. Cotton fabric has light material, strong sense of movement and better stage effect.

Pattern making of Qin opera costumes

When the 3D virtual restoration of Qin opera costume is carried out, firstly, the corresponding costumes pattern must be drawn with computer software. According to the data from the Internet, the height of Qin opera Danjue (a role of Qin opera) is generally between 160 and 170 cm, which is generally not too high. Therefore, the size of 165/88A in Chinese women’s costume size is selected for parameter setting. This part determines the size of the main parts of the costume, as shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Restore Qin opera costume’s size (Unit: cm)

As Qin opera costume is composed of robe (Pei), sleeveless jacket, causal coat, jacket, large folded skirt and pleated skirt, we draw the patterns of different styles of costumes according to the dimensions of the main parts, as shown in Fig. 5, and match them to obtain the expected effect.

Fig. 5
figure 5

Patterns of Qin opera costumes

Digital restoration of Qin opera costume

Digital restoration of Qin opera costume is carried out according to make the costume pattern. Before the virtual restoration of costume, the costume pattern style should be drawn with the help of CAD software, output to DXF file format and imported into the 3D virtual design system. To avoid the influence that the fabric is difficult to sew due to too many layers of costume, it is necessary to set the number of layers of the patterns. Before virtual stitching in the 3D window, arrange each costume pattern through the arrangement points. In this process, ensure that every pattern is close to the virtual model and that the sutures of the corresponding parts do not cross. After all patterns are sewn and all parts are checked to be smooth, set the color, fabric and pattern attributes of all patterns in the physical attribute window according to the previous study. Finally, the virtual opera costumes that meet the requirements are obtained through adjustment. The main process is shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6
figure 6

Flow chart of virtual restoration of Qin opera costumes

Innovative practical design of Qin opera costumes

The main content of this chapter is to carry out 3D innovative design based on Shaanxi opera clothing elements. The specific operation process is shown in Fig. 7. To further inherit Chinese culture and carry forward China’s intangible cultural heritage, based on the virtual restoration of Qin opera stage costumes, and using 3D digital protection technology as a tool, we choose Armour in Qin opera costume as the main costume pattern of this practical design. Based on the Armour costume structure, the traditional Qin opera costume is improved and innovated, in which the butterfly pattern in the animal pattern and the orchid pattern in the plant pattern are selected. In ancient China, the Butterfly of the Hu was homophonic with the Blessing of Fu, and was also considered to symbolize fortune and auspiciousness. At the same time, the rebirth of a butterfly from its cocoon indicates that it has changed from ugly to beautiful and symbolizes freedom. Orchid is a gentleman among flowers. It is an elegant, noble and represents noble personality. Therefore, the selection of butterfly pattern and orchid pattern as the patterns of improved Qin opera costume expresses the author’s lofty praise and expectation for Chinese women.

Fig. 7
figure 7

Flow chart of innovative fashion design based on Qin opera costume elements

In the process of innovative design of Qin opera costumes, we use digital technology as a tool, combined with the aesthetic needs of modern Chinese people, and choose three light color systems of red, yellow and blue to set off the softness of modern Chinese women. Based on retaining the elements of tassel, stand collar, oblique placket and pleat in Qin opera costume, some modern designs are added, such as lantern sleeves, splicing, pleating and other elements and processes. Completed the virtual design of the improved version of modern Qin opera women’s costume. Based on the design drawing, fill and add the color and pattern, and complete the drawing of innovative costume effect drawing. The effect drawing, flat and pattern of the innovative design of Qin opera costumes are shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 8
figure 8

The effect drawing, flat and pattern of the innovative design of Qin opera costumes

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