Identification of the Road of Tang Poetry in Eastern Zhejiang based on text information about the poet’s trails

The hierarchical visual analysis of the data from 70 poets’ trails shows that: The Road of Tang Poetry in Eastern Zhejiang is divided into three routes. The first begins in Xiaoshan District, Hangzhou, and follows the East Zhejiang Canal westwards to Shaoxing, then go upstream the Cao’e River and the Shanxi River in Shangyu, through Shengzhou and Xinchang to Tiantai, and finally southwards along the Shifeng River to Linhai. Generally, there is a water transport link of approximately 200 km in length between the western section of the East Zhejiang Canal, the Cao’e River, the Shanxi River and the Shifeng River; the second route runs from Shangyu along the East Zhejiang Canal eastwards through Yuyao to Ningbo and then northeastwards across the East China Sea to the Zhoushan Islands; the third route runs from Linhai westwards to Xianju and southwards along the Jiaojiang River to Taizhou, Huangyan and Wenling, with a total length of about 800 km.

Fig. 1
figure 1

Map of the number of poets’ trails

The “Xiaoshan-Shaoxing-Shangyu-Shengzhou-Xin-chang-Tiantai” route is the main line of the Tang poets’ trails, with the largest number of poets travelling along it. The “Shangyu-Ningbo” and “Tiantai-Linhai” routes are the two branch lines of the Tang poets’ trails, with fewer poets travelling on them (Fig. 1).

Spatial distribution pattern of the cultural landscape of the poetry road based on poetry text information

Places depicted in ancient poems

The 1593 poems involve a total of 79 places depicted in ancient poems, which are classified into four categories, including natural landscapes, residences of celebrities, Buddhist temples and Taoist temples, and administrative zones. The nearest neighbor index analysis of the places depicted in ancient poems shows that the actual nearest distance (bar{r_{1}}) is 7.5 km, the theoretical nearest distance (bar{r_{e}}) is 12.8 km, and the nearest neighbor index R is (0.58<1), indicating that the spatial distribution type of the places depicted in ancient poems is aggregation type. The kernel density analysis for it shows that: the places depicted in ancient poems have formed four aggregation groups. The “Xiaoshan-Shaoxing-Shangyu” and “Shengzhou-Xinchang-Tiantai” groups have a high kernel density, and the “Linhai-Xianju-Huangyan” and “Ningbo-Zhoushan” groups have a low kernel density (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2
figure 2

Spatial distribution and kernel density analysis map of ancient poetry described

Natural landscape

The 1593 poems involve a total of 47 natural landscapes, of which 36 are related to mountains and 11 to water landscape, such as Mount Tiantai, Mount Wozhou, Mount Wanwei, Jinghu Lake, Ruoye River and Shanxi River. The nearest neighbor index analysis shows that the actual nearest proximity distance (bar{r_{1}}) is 11.2 km, the theoretical nearest proximity distance (bar{r_{e}}) is 16.1 km, and the nearest neighbor index R is (0.7<1), indicating that the spatial distribution type of natural landscape is aggregation type. The kernel density analysis of the natural landscape shows that the “Xiaoshan-Shaoxing-Shangyu” group and the “Shengzhou-Xinchang-Tiantai” group are the main aggregation centres. In the “Xiaoshan-Shaoxing-Shangyu” group: Mount Kuiji, Mount Yunmen, Mount Qinwang, Mount Wanwei, Jinghu Lake, Ruoye River and other mountain and water landscapes are aggregated. In the “Shengzhou-Xinchang-Tiantai” group: Mount Tiantai, Mount Tianmu, Mount Tongbai, Mount Chicheng, Shanxi River and Dongxi River and other mountains and water landscapes are aggregated (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3
figure 3

Spatial distribution and kernel density analysis map of natural landscape

Buddhist and Taoist cultural landscape

There are 72 Buddhist temples recorded in the 1593 poems , such as Xinchang Buddha Temple, Yunmen Temple, Fahua Temple, Huading Temple and Guoqing Temple. There is 1 Taoist temple, it is Tongbai Temple. There are 14 Cave Paradise in total, of which 3 are large Cave Paradise, namely, the Yu Cave Heaven, the Chi Cheng Cave Heaven and the Jucang Cave Heaven; 4 are small Cave Paradise, namely, the Siming Mountain There are four small Caves, namely Siming Cave Heaven, Kuiji Cave Heaven, Gaijushan Cave Heaven and Jinting Cave Heaven, and seven Paradise, namely Dongxiangyuan, Xixiangyuan, Lingxu, Wozhou, Tianmu Cen, Ruoye Xi and Si Ma Hui Mountain. The nearest proximity index analysis of the Buddhist and Taoist cultural landscape shows that the actual nearest proximity distance (bar{r_{1}}) is 9.2 km and the theoretical nearest proximity distance (bar{r_{e}}) is 15.6 km, with a nearest proximity index R of (0.6<1), indicating that the spatial distribution of the cultural landscape is of the aggregation type. A kernel density analysis shows that three groups of Buddhist and Taoist cultural sites are formed along the Road of Tang Poetry, the first being the ’Xiaoshan-Shaoxing-Shangyu’ group at the beginning of the main line, the second being the ’Shengzhou-Xinchang-Tiantai’ group at the end of the main line, and the third being the ’Linhai-Xianju-Huangyan’ group along the Taizhou branch line. In the “Xiaoshan-Shaoxing-Shangyu” group, Yunmen Temple, Fahua Temple, Chenxin Temple, Wozhou Blessed Place, Kuijishan Cave Heaven, and other Buddhist temples and Taoist temples are aggregated. In the “Shengzhou-Xinchang-Tiantai” group: Guoqing Temple, Xinchang Dafo Temple, Huading Temple, Tongbai Temple, Jintingshan Cave Heaven, Chicheng Cave Heaven, and other Buddhist temples and Taoist temples are aggregated. In the “Linhai-Xianju-Huangyan” group, Lingshan Temple, Longxing Temple, Gaizhu Cave Heaven, Cang Cave Heaven, Dongxiangyuan Blessed Place, and other Buddhist temples and Taoist temples are aggregated (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4
figure 4

Spatial distribution and kernel density analysis map of buddhist and taoist cultural landscape

Fig. 5
figure 5

Spatial distribution map of celebrity cultural landscape

Celebrity cultural landscape

The 1593 poems involve four residences of celebrities, they are Lanting (Wang Xizhi’s house), He Zhizhang’s house, Zheng Qian’s house and Yan Wei’s house; and there are nine places where famous allusions and legends took place, These allusions and legends are: Ma Zhen building a lake, visiting Dai in the snowy night, elegant meeting at Lanting, staging a comeback, fishing for turtles at Nan Yan, Queen Mother of Heaven, eighteen famous scholars, eighteen eminent monks, Liu Ruan encountering immortals, and Sima regretting on the mountain. The residences of celebrities and legends and allusions basically are distributed along the main line of the Road of Tang Poetry, and most are in the vicinity of Shaoxing and Tiantai (Fig. 5).

Folk cultural landscape

The 1593 poems have mentioned seven kinds of specialties, such as the perch and Brasenia of Eastern Zhejiang, the Shan paper and wine of Shaoxing, the famous tea of Eastern Zhejiang from the Shanxi River and the Mount Tiantai, the various kinds of valuable medicinal herbs produced in the Mount Tiantai, and the rattan of Yuezhong, the Huading Rattan, which was preferred by the literati. The spatial distribution of these folk cultural resources is shown in Fig. 6, with most of them distributed in the cities along the main line of the Road of Tang Poetry and the branch line of Mingzhou.

Fig. 6
figure 6

Spatial distribution map of folk cultural landscape

Analysis of poets’ social network based on poetry text information

The “poet-person” social network

The “poet-person” social network refers to the network relationship formed between “poet-poet” and “poet-person mentioned in the poem”. According to statistics, this network contains 948 nodes and an undirected network of 1072 edges. The stable network obtained after running based on the Fruchterman Reingold layout is shown in Fig. 7. The characters in the figure can be divided into three parts according to their dynasties: “Ancient Times–Han Dynasty (before 220 A.D)”, “ Wei Dynasty–Sui Dynasty (220 A.D-618 A.D)”,and “Tang Dynasty (618 A.D-907 A.D)”.

From the overall network structure, the average degree of the network is 2.068, which is much smaller than the number of nodes (948), and the graph density is 0.002. It can be seen that the network as a whole is a sparse, unbalanced, and low-density network. The degree of closeness of the nodes is low, and most of the nodes are weak connections; the central potential of the degree is 0.05, indicating that the network has a tendency to concentrate in certain locations, and there is a “core-edge” structural feature.

From the results of degree and intensity, only 12.44% of the nodes have a degree greater than the average degree, indicating that there are a few nodes with multiple co-occurrence connections in the network. Fang Gan, Li Bai, Bai Juyi, Du Fu, Liu Changqing and others are ranked in the top five in terms of degree value and intensity value, and they belong to the core figures in the poet network of the Road of Tang Poetry. 63 poets have mentioned 31 contemporary poets , involving 113 poems; 175 poets have mentioned 570 contemporary “the person mentioned in the poem”, involving 670 poems. This forms the first circle in the Fig. 7, which is closely related.

Fig. 7
figure 7

“Poet-Person” social network

56 poets of Tang Dynasty have mentioned 64 “the person mentioned in the poem” in the ancient poems of “ Wei Dynasty– Sui Dynasty”, including Xie An (13 poems), Wang Xizhi (10 poems), Xie Lingyun (10 poems), Zhi Dun (8 poems), Zi You (3 poems) and they are in the top five in degree value and intensity value, forming the second circle that is closely related to the first circle in the Fig. 7; 60 poets of Tang Dynasty have mentioned 105 “person mentioned in the poem” from “Ancient Times to Han Dynasty”, among them Liu Chen (16 poems), Xi Shi (15 poems), Ruan Zhao (15 poems), Gou Jian (8 poems), Fu Chai (4 poems) and they are in the top five in degree value and intensity value, forming the third circle that is closely related to the first circle in the Fig. 7.

The “Poet-landscape” social network

The “poet-landscape” social network refers to the network relationship formed between poets and the landscape of famous mountains , rivers and lakes, administrative zones, Buddhist temples and Taoist temples, residences of celebrities, and folk culture described in ancient poems. According to statistics, this network contains 490 nodes and a directed network with 1878 edges. The stable network obtained after running based on the Fruchterman Reingold layout is shown in Fig. 8.

From the overall network structure, the average degree of the network is 2.792, which is much smaller than the number of nodes (490), and the graph density is 0.005. It can be seen that the network as a whole is a sparse, unbalanced, and low-density network. The degree of connection of nodes is low, and most of the nodes are weak connections; the central potential of the degree is 0.13, indicating that the network has a tendency to concentrate in certain locations, and there is a “core-edge” structural feature.

From the results of degree and intensity, 223 poets have described 36 famous mountains,with higher values for places such as Mount Tiantai (87 poems), Mount Wanwei (64 poems) and Mount Wozhou (63 poems). 126 poets have described 11 rivers and lakes, with higher values at Jinghu Lake (66 poems), Ruoye River (64 poems) and Shanxi River (50 poems). 152 poets have described 21 administrative zones, with higher values for Yuezhou (113 poems), Yuezhou Prefecture (71 poems) and Shanzhong (41 poems). 86 poets have described a total of 72 Buddhist temples and 16 Taoist temples, with higher values for Yunmen Temple (23 poems), Fahua Temple (18 poems), Xuedou Temple (8 poems), Tongbai Temple (6 poems), Tianzhu Temple (4 poems) and Guanyin Temple (3 poems). 45 poets have described four residences of celebrities, they are Lanting (22 poems), He Zhizhang’s house (21 poems), Zheng Qian’s house (12 poems) and Yan Wei’s house (8 poems). 104 poets have described seven specialties: wine (123 poems), elixir (55 poems), rattan sticks (29 poems), tea (20 poems), perch (11 poems), Shan paper (8 poems), and Brasenia (6 poems).

Fig. 8
figure 8

“Poet-landscape” social network

Differentiation and analysis of the causes and characteristics of the Road of Tang Poetry in Eastern Zhejiang based on mathematical analysis

The causes of formation of the Road of Tang Poetry in Eastern Zhejiang under the logic of mathematical statistics

  1. (1)

    From the statistics of the relationship between poems and landscapes, it is found that 23 poets have described 36 famous mountains, and 126 poets have described 11 rivers and lakes. And there are more poems on mountain and water landscape such as Mount Tiantai (87 poems), Mount Wozhou (64 poems), Mount Wanwei (63 poems), Jinghu Lake (66 poems), Ruoye River (64 poems) and Shanxi River (50 poems). From the perspective of spatial distribution, the landscape is characterized by the “Xiaoshan-Shaoxing-Shangyu” group and the “Shengzhou-Xinchang-Tiantai” group as the main gathering centers. In the “Xiaoshan-Shaoxing-Shangyu” group, the landscape of Mount Kuiji, Mount Yunmen, Mount Qinwang, Mount Wanwei, Jinghu Lake and Ruoye River are aggregated. In the “Shengzhou-Xinchang-Tiantai” group, the landscape of Mount Tiantai, Mount Tianmu, Mount Tongbai, Mount Chicheng, the Shanxi River and the Dongxi River are aggregated.

    The cause of formation of this is that: poets often ”use poetry to embellish the scenery, displaying the beautiful landscape and profound history and culture”, showing the beauty of the landscape and the profound history and humanity in their poems; at the same time, they “use their poems to express their aspirations”, reflecting their emotions, ideals, perceptions and the context of their time in the landscape. In the Southern Dynasty(420–589 A.D), Xie Lingyun adopted the increasingly sophisticated five-line poetic style, creating and forming one of the earliest pastoral landscape poetry school in China. In his poem, Crossing the Shining Villa, he has written, “…White clouds surround the distant rocks, and the green tender bamboo looks charming beside the clear waves of water…” And in Ascending Chi Shang Lou, he has written, “…The pond is already full of spring grass, and the songbirds on the willows in the garden have changed their species and their voices…” With his delicate brushwork and remote artistic conception, the beauty of his landscapes became famous throughout the world along with his poetry. Throughout the course of a lifetime, Li Bai “…entered Zhejiang four times, entered Shanzhong three times, went to Tiantai twice, and went to Siming once…”. In his poem, he has written, “…The Mount Tianwu seems to be connected to the sky that blocks the sky. It is higher than the Five Mountains and it overshadows Mount Chicheng…” (Dreaming of a Trip to Tianwu and Staying Behind). Bai Juyi visited the east of Zhejiang three times in his life, he wrote 42 poems to praise the beauty of the landscape and the humanities in Yuezhong, including “…The dragon chants the ancient stone buildings, the tiger roars the pavilions of the rocks…” (Staying at Yunmen Temple ),and “…The mountain is a painted screen for the lotus palace, the buildings and terraces are gradually plunged into the sky…” (Tian Yi Temple in Mount Fahua ). The poems provide an important historical testimony to the beauty of the landscape in eastern Zhejiang.

  2. (2)

    From the statistics of the relationship between poems and Buddhist temples and Taoist temples, it is found that 86 poets have described a total of 72 Buddhist temples and 16 Taoist temples, with more poems describing Yunmen Temple (23 poems), Fahua Temple (18 poems), Xuedou Temple (8 poems), Tongbai Temple (6 poems), Tianzhu Temple (4 poems), and Guanyin Temple (3 poems). From the perspective of spatial distribution pattern, the Buddhist and Taoist cultural landscapes are characterized by the “Xiaoshan-Shaoxing-Shangyu” group, the “Shengzhou-Xinchang-Tiantai” group and the “Linhai-Xianju-Huangyan” group as the main gathering centers. In the “Xiaoshan-Shaoxing-Shangyu” group, Buddhist temples and Taoist temples such as Yunmen Temple, Fahua Temple, Weixin Temple, Wozhou Blessed Place and Kuijishan Cave Heaven are aggregated. In the “Shengzhou-Xinchang-Tiantai” group, Guoqing Temple, Xinchang Dafo Temple, Huading Temple, Tongbai Temple, Jintingshan Cave Heaven, Chicheng Cave Heaven Heaven, and other Buddhist temples and Taoist temples are aggregated. In the “Linhai-Xianju-Huangyan” group, Buddhist temples and Taoist temples such as Lingshan Temple, Longxing Temple, Gaijushan Cave Heaven, Cangshan Cave Heaven and Dongxiangyuan Blessed Place are aggregated.

    The cause of formation of this is that: Taoism has been developed in Yuezhong since the Qin dynasty(221 B.D–207 B.D), and its influence reached a climax in the Tang dynasty, when the generation master Sima Chengzhen emerged and was highly valued by the central government of the Tang dynasty, leading many poets to come to Yuezhong Tiantai. Buddhism flourished in Yuezhong mainly during the“ Wei Dynasty– Sui Dynasty”, represented by the founder of the Tiantai sect of Buddhism, eminent monk Zhiyi. Tiantai Buddhism was popular in the intellectual, philosophical and religious circles of the Tang Dynasty. It made all monks and lay people follow the trend [22]. Li Bai wrote “… this time I am away from home, not for the sake of greed, but to visit the famous mountains and rivers, so I go to Shanzhong…” (Down to Jingmen in Autumn), The purpose of his trip to Mount Tiantai was to meet Sima Chengzhen and to take a “curved path” to be an official. Meng Haoran wrote, “…I have travelled far to learn the way of longevity…”( The Lodging in the Tongbai Temple in Tiantai), this is a poem about going to Mount Tiantai to learn the way of longevity from a Taoist priest and to take food to seek immortality. Jia Dao went to Mount Tiantai because he admired the eminent monk Zhiyi. “…The master grinds and gives a lecture, saying that we should be aligned with the wise traces…”( Sending a monk back to Tiantai). The poems fully reflect the important social trend of seeking “immortality, Taoism, Buddhism and seclusion” in the Tang Dynasty.

  3. (3)

    From the statistics of the relationship between poems and celebrity culture, it is found that 45 poets have described 4 residences of celebrities, including Lanting (Wang Xizhi’s house), He Zhizhang’s house, Zheng Qian’s house and Yan Wei’s house. 60 poets have remembered Liu Chen (16 poems), Xi Shi (15 poems), Ruan Zhao (15 poems), Gou Jian (8 poems), Fu Chai (4 poems) and other 105 celebrities in their poems from “Ancient Times to Han dynasty”, 56 poets have remembered Xie An (13 poems), Wang Xizhi (10 poems), Xie Lingyun (10 poems), Zhi Dun (8 poems), Zi You (3 poems) and other 64 celebrities in their poems from the“ Wei Dynasty– Sui Dynasty”. From the perspective of the spatial distribution pattern, the celebrity cultural landscape presents the spatial characteristics of the distribution along the main line of the Road of Tang Poetry.

    The cause of formation of this is that the traditions, ethos and cultural lifestyle shaped by the famous literati of the “ Wei Dynasty–Sui Dynasty” greatly influenced the poets of the Tang Dynasty, and the veneration and remembrance of their predecessors and sages in this area, as well as the search for the places where their masterpieces were composed, allowed the cultural spirit of the literati of “ Wei Dynasty–Sui Dynasty”s to accumulate and be passed on in the area along the poetry road. Li Bai wrote, “…Mount Tiantai is next to Mount Siming, Mount Huading is higher than Mount Baiyue. The gate is marked by the cloud of Mount Chicheng, and the building is perched on the moon of Cangdao…”( The Dawn View of Tiantai ). This is a response to Sun Chao’s Fugue of Tiantai Mountain in the Eastern Jin Dynasty. “…With my feet in Xie Gong’s clogs, I climbed the ladder to the green clouds…” (Dreaming of a Trip to Tianwu and Staying Behind). It is a tribute to his idol, Xie Lingyun. The poems reflect the stories of Sun Chao’s Fugue on Mount Tiantai, Wang Xizhi’s Orchid Pavilion, Xie An’s staging a comeback, Wang Ziyou’s visiting to Dai in the snowy night, Ren Gongzi’s fishing trip at Nan Yan, Liu Ruan’s encountering with the immortals, Queen Mother of Heaven, the 18 eminent monks, the 18 famous literati, and Sima’s regret on the bridge. These are important reasons why the literati of the Tang dynasty constantly sought out and traced the trails and context of their predecessors and sages, ‘using the poems as a basis’, reflecting the important social trend of the Tang period to admire the demeanor of the “ Wei Dynasty–Sui Dynasty” and the romance of the celebrities.

  4. (4)

    From the statistics of the relationship between poems and folk cultural landscapes, it is found that 104 poets have described 7 kinds of specialties, namely: wine (123 poems), elixir (55 poems), rattan sticks (29 poems), tea (20 poems), perch (11 poems), Shan paper (8 poems), and Brasenia (6 poems). From the perspective of spatial distribution pattern, the folk cultural landscape presents the characteristics of distribution along the main line of the Road of Tang Poetry and the branch line of Mingzhou.

    The cause of formation of this is that, after the Southern Crossing of Yongjia (307–311 A.D), the eastern Zhejiang region, with its unique geographical and peaceful social environment, was like a “ pot of treasures”, constantly attracting literary groups from other cultures and forming a relatively prosperous and developed economic base by the Tang period. In Gu Kuang’s poem, “…Shan paper is made of Shan rattan sticks, and after spraying and pounding, it is turned into banana leaves…”(Song of Shan Paper), and the monk poet Jiao Ran once said, “…The Yue people sent me tea from Shanxi, I picked the young shoots of the tea leaves and cooked them in the tea set…”( Flirting with Cui Shi ambassador’s inability to drink tea). The 1593 poems have mentioned seven kinds of specialties, including perch and Brasenia , Shaoxing’s Shan paper, the famous tea “Yue bamboo” from Shanxi River and Mount Tiantai, various kinds of valuable medicinal herbs from Mount Tiantai, and the “Huading stick”, a rattan stick from Yuezhong, preferred by the literati, as well as five kinds of folk arts, including Shengzhou Yue Opera, Shangyu Shao Opera, Ningbo Yong Opera, gold lacquer wood carving and Yuyao celadon. The poetry road provides an important historical witness to the diverse cultural intermingling and diverse folk life of Eastern Zhejiang.

Characteristics of the road of Tang Poetry in Eastern Zhejiang under the logic of mathematical statistics

  1. (1)

    There is an obvious “circle layer-network” relationship between “the poets of the Tang Dynasty–the famous celebrities in the “ Wei Dynasty– Sui Dynasty”—the characters in the “Ancient times to Han dynasty”. The poets of the Tang Dynasty such as Li Bai and Du Fu who belonged to the first circle have a close network connection. 63 poets have mentioned 31 contemporary poets in their poems, reflecting that the poets in the same historical period have formed a strong connection through the poetic response with each other, and the level of poetic creation have accumulated and elevated to a higher literary level between the poetic response; there is a strong degree of network connection between Wang Xizhi, Xie An and other celebrities of the “ Wei Dynasty–Sui Dynasty” belonging to the second circle and the poets of the Tang Dynasty in the first circle, with a total of 56 poets mentioning 64 celebrities of the “ Wei Dynasty–Sui Dynasty”, which reflects the tribute and remembrance of the poets of the Tang Dynasty to their predecessors and sages through their poems. It is the tradition, ethos and cultural lifestyle shaped by the poetry of the celebrities of this historical period that caused the poets of the Tang Dynasty to continue to travel to Eastern Zhejiang and leave poems in remembrance and tribute; Liu Chen, Xi Shi, etc., who belong to the third circle, do not have poems for descendant, and some characters are just folklore, but 60 poets have mentioned 105 characters in the period of “Ancient times to Han dynasties”, forming a strong degree of network connection with the poets of the Tang dynasty in the first circle, which reflects the poetic writing technique in which the poets of the Tang Dynasty used ancient characters to express their yearning for a certain ideal life or express their life situation.

  2. (2)

    The poets have formed an obvious “circle layer-network” relationship with the famous mountains , rivers and lakes, administrative zones, Buddhist temples and Taoist temples, residences of celebrities, and folk culture. 223 poets have described 36 famous mountains , 126 poets have described 11 rivers and lakes, 86 poets have described a total of 72 Buddhist temples and 16 Taoist temples, 45 poets have mentioned the residences of celebrities, and 104 poets have described 7 kinds of specialty. It can be seen that when the poets are creating the poems, they are often moved by things, express their aspirations with poetry, express their feelings in the scenery, and use the scenery to express their emotions. Through the words of the poems, it comprehensively reflects the beautiful landscape and profound history and humanities in Eastern Zhejiang, reflects the poetic artistic conception of the perfect blend of human and nature, and fully and vividly shows the natural landscape, social customs and spiritual realm of the Tang Dynasty.

    Through the identification and analysis of the causes of the Road of Tang Poetry in Eastern Zhejiang under the logic of mathematical statistics, two characteristics of the Road of Tang Poetry in Eastern Zhejiang can be summarized. Firstly, the talented literati of various dynasties travelled to the Eastern Zhejiang and praise its beautiful landscape and profound humanities, creating poems that expressed their feelings, ideals, perceptions and the context of their time, reflecting the interactive characteristic of “Merging Feeling with Scenery”. Secondly, the traditions, customs and cultural lifestyles shaped by the famous literati of the “ Wei Dynasty–Sui Dynasty” attracted poets of the Tang dynasty to travel to the eastern Zhejiang to pay tribute to their ancient saints and sages, and the famous poems of the Tang poets would in turn influence the literati of later dynasties to continue to travel to the eastern Zhejiang to leave new works, a phenomenon of continuous accumulation and innovation of literary poetry, reflecting the cultural characteristic of “deep root and tremendous influence”.

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