Aarts, G., J. Fieberg, S. Brasseur, and J. Matthiopoulos. 2013. Quantifying the effect of habitat availability on species distributions. Journal of Animal Ecology 82: 1135–1145.
Agee, J.K. 1993. Fire ecology of Pacific Northwest forests. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
Araujo, M.B., and M. Luoto. 2007. The importance of biotic interactions for modelling species distributions under climate change. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16: 743–753.
Beschta, R.L., J.J. Rhodes, J.B. Kauffman, R.E. Gresswell, G.W. Minshall, J.R. Karr, D.A. Perry, F.R. Hauer, and C.A. Frissell. 2004. Postfire management on forested public lands of the western United States. Conservation Biology 18: 957–967.
Brawn, J.D., S.K. Robinson, and F.R. Thompson III. 2001. The role of disturbance in the ecology and conservation of birds. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 32: 251–276.
Burnett, R.D., and L.J. Roberts. 2015. A quantitative evaluation of the conservation umbrella of spotted owl management areas in the Sierra Nevada. PLoS ONE 10 (4): e0123778. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123778.
Cahall, R.E., and J.P. Hayes. 2009. Influences of postfire salvage logging on forest birds in the Eastern Cascades, Oregon, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 257: 1119–1128.
Campos, B.R., Q.S. Latif, R.D. Burnett, and V.A. Saab. 2020. Predictive habitat suitability models for nesting woodpeckers following wildfire in the Sierra Nevada and Southern Cascades of California. Condor 122: 1–27.
Coppoletta, M., K.E. Merriam, and B.M. Collins. 2016. Post-fire vegetation and fuel development influences fire severity patterns in reburns. Ecological Applications 26: 686–699.
Crotteau, J., J.M. Varner, and M. Ritchie. 2013. Post-fire regeneration across a fire severity gradient in the southern Cascades. Forest Ecology and Management 287: 103–112.
Donato, D.C., J.B. Fontaine, J.L. Campbell, W.D. Robinson, J.B. Kauffman, and B.E. Law. 2006. Post-wildfire logging hinders regeneration and increases fire risk. Science 311: 352.
Donato, D.C., J.B. Fontaine, W.D. Robinson, J.B. Kauffman, and B.E. Law. 2009. Vegetation response to a short interval between high-severity wildfires in a mixed-evergreen forest. Journal of Ecology 97: 142–154.
Dorazio, R.M., M. Kéry, J.A. Royle, and M. Plattner. 2010. Models for inference in dynamic metacommunity systems. Ecology 91: 2466–2475.
Fiske, I.J., and R.B. Chandler. 2011. Unmarked: an R Package for fitting hierarchical models of wildlife occurrence and abundance. Journal of Statistical Software 43: 1–23.
Fontaine, J. B. 2007. Influences of high severity fire and postfire salvage logging on avian and small mammal communities of the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon, USA. PhD dissertation. Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA.
Fontaine, J.B., D.C. Donato, W.D. Robinson, B.E. Law, and J.B. Kauffman. 2009. Bird communities following high-severity fire: Response to single and repeat fires in a mixed-evergreen forest, Oregon, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 257: 1496–1504.
Haggard, M., and W.L. Gaines. 2001. Effects of stand-replacement fire and salvage logging on a cavity-nesting bird community in Eastern Cascades, Washington. Northwest Science 75: 387–396.
Hanson, C.T., and M.P. North. 2008. Postfire woodpecker foraging in salvage-logged and unlogged forests of the Sierra Nevada. Condor 110: 777–782.
Heiberger, R.M. 2018. HH: Statistical analysis and data display: Heiberger and Holland. R package version 3.1-35. URL https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=HH
Hutto, R.L., and S.M. Gallo. 2006. The effects of postfire salvage logging on cavity-nesting birds. Condor 108: 817–831.
Hutto, R.L., R.E. Keane, R.L. Sherriff, C.T. Rota, L.A. Eby, and V.A. Saab. 2016. Toward a more ecologically informed view of severe forest fires. Ecosphere 7 (2): e01255.
Johnstone, J.F., C.D. Allen, J.F. Franklin, L.E. Frelich, B.J. Harvey, P.E. Higuera, M.C. Mack, R.K. Meentemeyer, M.R. Metz, G.L. Perry, T. Schoennagel, and M.G. Turner. 2016. Changing disturbance regimes, ecological memory, and forest resilience. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 14: 369–378.
Koenig, W.D., E.L. Walters, P.B. Stacey, M.T. Stanback, and R.L. Mumme. 2019. Acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America, ed. P.G. Rodewald. Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.acowoo.02.
Koivula, M.J., and F.K.A. Schmiegelow. 2007. Boreal woodpecker assemblages in recently burned forested landscapes in Alberta, Canada: Effects of post-fire harvesting and burn severity. Forest Ecology and Management 242: 606–618.
Kotliar, N.B., S.J. Hejl, R.L. Hutto, V.A. Saab, C.P. Melcher, and M.E. McFadzen. 2002. Effects of fire and post-fire salvage logging on avian communities in conifer-dominated forests of the western United States. Studies in Avian Biology 25: 49–64.
Kramer, A., G.M. Jones, S.A. Whitmore, J.J. Keane, F.A. Atuo, B.P. Dotters, S.C. Sawyer, S.L. Stock, R.J. Gutierrez, and M.Z. Peery. 2021. California spotted owl habitat selection in a fire-managed landscape suggests conservation benefit of restoring historical fire regimes. Forest Ecology and Management 479: 118576.
Kronland, W.J., and M. Restani. 2011. Effects of post-fire salvage logging on cavity-nesting birds and small mammals in southeastern Montana. Canadian Field-Naturalist 125: 316–326.
Lee, D.E., M.L. Bond, M.I. Borchert, and R. Tanner. 2013. Influence of fire and salvage logging on site occupancy of spotted owls in the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains of Southern California. Journal of Wildlife Management 77: 1327–1341.
Leverkus, A.B., J.M.R. Benayas, J. Castro, D. Boucher, S. Brewer, B.M. Collins, D. Donato, S. Fraver, B.E. Kishchuk, E. Lee, D.B. Lindenmayer, E. Lingua, E. Macdonald, R. Marzano, C.C. Rhoades, A. Royo, S. Thorn, J. Wagenbrenner, K. Waldron, T. Wohlgemuth, and L. Gustafsson. 2018. Salvage logging effects on regulating and supporting ecosystem services – A systematic map. Canadian Journal of Forestry 48: 983–1000.
Lindenmayer, D.B., and R.F. Noss. 2006. Salvage logging, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology 20: 949–958.
Lindenmayer, D.B., P.J. Burton, and J.F. Franklin. 2008. Salvage logging and its ecological consequences. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
Lindenmayer, D.B., L. McBurney, D. Blair, J. Wood, and S.C. Banks. 2018. From unburnt to salvage logged: Quantifying bird responses to different levels of disturbance severity. Journal of Applied Ecology 55: 1626–1636.
Loffland, H.L., J.S. Polasik, M.W. Tingley, E.A. Elsey, C. Loffland, G. LeBuhn, and R.B. Siegel. 2017. Bumble bee use of post-fire chaparral in the central Sierra Nevada. Journal of Wildlife Management 81: 1084–1097.
Long, J.W., C. Skinner, S. Charnley, K. Hubbert, L. Quinn-Davidson, and M. Meyer. 2014. Chapter 4.3 – Post-Wildfire Management. In Science synthesis to support socioecological resilience in the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Range. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-247, ed. J.W. Long, L.N. Quinn-Davidson, and C.N. Skinner. Albancy: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Miller, J.D., and H. Safford. 2012. Trends in wildfire severity: 1984 to 2010 in the Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, and southern Cascades, California, USA. Fire Ecology 8: 41–57.
Miller, J.D., and A.E. Thode. 2007. Quantifying burn severity in a heterogeneous landscape with a relative version of the delta Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR). Remote Sensing of Environment 109: 66–80.
Miller, J.D., E.E. Knapp, C.H. Key, C.N. Skinner, C.J. Isbell, R.M. Creasy, and J.W. Sherlock. 2009. Calibration and validation of the relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) to three measures of fire severity in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains, California, USA. Remote Sensing of Environment 113: 645–656.
Morissette, J.L., T.P. Cobb, R.M. Brigham, and P.C. James. 2002. The response of boreal forest songbird communities to fire and post-fire harvesting. Canadian Journal Forestry Research 32: 2169–2183.
Morrison, M.L. 2012. The habitat sampling and analysis paradigm has limited value in animal conservation: A prequel. Journal of Wildlife Management 76: 438–450.
North, M. (ed.) 2012. Managing Sierra Nevada forests. PSW-GRT-237. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, California, USA.
Oksanen, J., F.G. Blanchet, M. Friendly, R. Kindt, P. Legendre, D. McGlinn, P.R. Minchin, R.B. O’Hara, G.L. Simpson, P. Solymos et al. 2018. Vegan: Community ecology package. R Package Version 2.5-1. Available online: https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan.
R Core Team. 2014. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Version 3.4.1. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
Ralph, C.J., G.R. Geupel, P. Pyle, T.E. Martin, and D.F. DeSante. 1993 Handbook of field methods for monitoring landbirds. PSW-GTR-144. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, California, USA.
Ralph, C.J., S. Droege, and J.R. Sauer. 1995. Managing and monitoring birds using point counts: standards and applications. In Monitoring bird populations by point counts. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, California, USA, ed. C.J. Ralph, J.R. Sauer, and S. Droege.
Roberts, L.J., R.D. Burnett, and A.M. Fogg. 2021. Fire and mechanical forest management treatments support different portions of the bird community in fire-suppressed forests. Forests 12: 150. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12020150.
Rost, J., R.L. Hutto, L. Brotons, and P. Pons. 2013. Comparing the effect of salvage logging on birds in the Mediterranean Basin and the Rocky Mountains: Common patterns, different conservation implications. Biological Conservation 158: 7–13.
Russell, R.E., V.A. Saab, J.G. Dudley, and J.J. Rotella. 2006. Snag longevity in relation to wildfire and postfire salvage logging. Forest Ecology and Management 232: 179–187.
Saab, V.A., R.E. Russell, and J.G. Dudley. 2007. Nest densities of cavity-nesting birds in relation to postfire salvage logging and time since wildfire. Condor 109: 97–108.
Safford, H.D., and K.M. Van de Water. 2014. Using fire return interval departure (FRID) analysis to map spatial and temporal changes in fire frequency on national forest lands in California. PSW-RP-266. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, California.
Safford, H.D., R.J. Butz, G.N. Bohlman, M. Coppoletta, B.L. Estes, S.E. Gross, K.E. Merriam, M.D. Meyer, N.A. Molinari, and A. Wuenschel. 2021. Fire ecology of the North American Mediterranean-climate zone. In Fire ecology and management: Past, present, and future of US forested ecosystems, ed. C.H. Greenberg and B. Collins. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-73267-7_9.
Shatford, J.P.A., D.E. Hibbs, and K.J. Puettmann. 2007. Conifer regeneration after forest fire in the Klamath-Siskiyou: How much, how soon? Journal of Forestry 105: 1535–1549.
Sierra Nevada Ecoystem Project (SNEP). 1999. Sierra Nevada region digital elevation model. Available online: www.ice.ucdavis.edu/snep/dataset.asp?dataset=318 (Accessed 15 Mar 2013).
Smucker, K.M., R.L. Hutto, and B.M. Steele. 2005. Changes in bird abundance after wildfire: Importance of fire severity and time since fire. Ecological Applications 15: 1535–1549.
Sollmann, R., B. Gardner, R.B. Chandler, J.A. Royle, and T.S. Sillett. 2015. An open-population hierarchical distance sampling model. Ecology 96: 325–331.
Steel, Z.L., A.M. Fogg, R.D. Burnett. L.J. Roberts, and H.D. Safford. 2021. When bigger isn’t better – Implications of large high-severity wildfire patches for avian diversity and community composition. Diversity and Distributions 28: 439–453.
Steel, Z.L., H.D. Safford, and J.H. Viers. 2015. The fire frequency-severity relationship and the legacy of fire suppression in California forests. Ecosphere 6 (1): 8.
Steel, Z.L., M.J. Koontz, and H.D. Safford. 2018. The changing landscape of wildfire: Burn pattern trends and implications for California’s yellow pine and mixed conifer forest. Landscape Ecology 33: 1159–1176.
Steel, Z.L., B. Campos, W.F. Frick, R. Burnett, and H.D. Safford. 2019. The effects of wildfire severity and pyrodiversity on bat occupancy and diversity in fire-suppressed forests. Scientific Reports 9: 16300.
Stephens, S.L., S.W. Bigelow, R.D. Burnett, B.M. Collins, C.V. Gallagher, J. Keane, D.A. Kelt, M.P. North, L.J. Roberts, P.A. Stine, and D.H. Van Vuren. 2014. California spotted owl, songbird, and small mammal responses to landscape fuel treatments. Bioscience 64: 893–906.
Stevens, D.L., and A.R. Olsen. 2004. Spatially balanced sampling of natural resources. Journal of the American Statistical Association 99: 262–278.
Stillman, A.N., R.B. Siegel, R.L. Wilkerson, M. Johnson, and M.W. Tingley. 2019. Age-dependent habitat relationships of a burned forest specialist emphasise the role of pyrodiversity in fire management. Journal of Applied Ecology 56: 880–890.
Swanson, M.E., J.F. Franklin, R.L. Beschta, C.M. Crisafulli, D.A. DellaSala, R.L. Hutto, D.B. Lindenmayer, and F.J. Swanson. 2010. The forgotten stage of forest succession: Early-successional ecosystems on forest sites. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9: 117–125.
Taillie, P.J., R.D. Burnett, L.J. Roberts, B.R. Campos, M.N. Peterson, and C.E. Moorman. 2018. Interacting and non-linear avian responses to mixed-severity wildfire and time since fire. Ecosphere 9 (6): e02291. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.2291.
Tarbill, G.L., A.M. White, and P.N. Manley. 2018. The persistence of Black-backed Woodpeckers following delayed salvage logging in the Sierra Nevada. Avian Conservation and Ecology 13 (1): 16.
Thorn, S., C. Bässler, R. Brandl, P.J. Burton, R. Cahall, J.L. Campbell, J. Castro, C.Y. Choi, T. Cobb, D.C. Donato, E. Durska, J.B. Fonatine, S. Gathier, C. Hebert, T. Hothorn, R.L. Hutto, E.-J. Lee, A.B. Leverkus, D.B. Lindenmayer, M.K. Obrist, J. Rost, S. Seibold, R. Seidl, D. Thom, K. Waldron, B. Wermelinger, M. Winter, M. Zmihorski, and J. Müller. 2017. Impacts of salvage logging on biodiversity: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology 2017 (00): 1–11.
Tingley, M.W., V. Ruiz-Gutierrez, R.L. Wilkerson, C.A. Howell, and R.B. Siegel. 2016a. Pyrodiversity promotes avian diversity over the decade following forest fire. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 283: 20161703.
Tingley, M.W., R.L. Wilkerson, C.A. Howell, and R.B. Siegel. 2016b. An integrated occupancy and home-range model to predict abundance of a wide-ranging, territorial vertebrate. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 7: 508–517.
USDA Forest Service. 2004. Existing vegetation – CALVEG. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, Remote Sensing Lab, McClellan, California, USA.
USDA Forest Service. 2013. Final environmental assessment: Chip-munk recovery and restoration project. Plumas National Forest, Quincy, California, USA. https://www.fs.usda.gov/project/?project=41149.
USDA Forest Service. 2014. Rim Fire recovery record of decision. R5-MB-270. Stanislaus National Forest, Sonora, California, USA. https://www.fs.usda.gov/nfs/11558/www/nepa/97293_FSPLT3_2326067.pdf
Webster, K.M., and C.B. Halpern. 2010. Long-term vegetation responses to reintroduction and repeated use of fire in mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada. Ecosphere 1 (5): art9.
Welch, K.R., H.D. Safford, and T.P. Young. 2016. Predicting conifer establishment post wildfire in mixed conifer forests of the North American Mediterranean-climate zone. Ecosphere 7: e01609.
Westerling, A.L., H.G. Hidalgo, D.R. Cayan, and T.W. Swetnam. 2006. Warming and earlier spring increase western U.S. Forest Wildfire Activity. Science 313: 940–943.
White, A.M., G.L. Tarbill, B. Wilkerson, and R. Siegel. 2019. Few detections of Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) in extreme wildfires in the Sierra Nevada. Avian Conservation and Ecology 14 (1): 17.
Zmihorski, M.G., S. Hebda, J. Eggers, T. Mansson, D. Abrahamsson, W. Walankiewicz Czeszczewik, and G. Mikusinski. 2019. Early post-fire bird community in European boreal forest: Comparing salvage-logged with non-intervention areas. Global Ecology and Conservation 18 (2019): e00636.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.